Titus 3 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)
1 [a]Remind them to be under the control of magistrates and authorities,[b] to be obedient, to be open to every good enterprise. 2 They are to slander no one, to be peaceable, considerate, exercising all graciousness toward everyone. 3 For we ourselves were once foolish, disobedient, deluded, slaves to various desires and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful ourselves and hating one another.
4 But when the kindness and generous love of God our savior appeared, 5 not because of any righteous deeds we had done but because of his mercy, he saved us through the bath of rebirth and renewal by the holy Spirit, 6 whom he richly poured out on us through Jesus Christ our savior, 7 so that we might be justified by his grace and become heirs in hope of eternal life.
8 This saying is trustworthy.
Advice to Titus.[c] I want you to insist on these points, that those who have believed in God be careful to devote themselves to good works; these are excellent and beneficial to others. 9 [d]Avoid foolish arguments, genealogies, rivalries, and quarrels about the law, for they are useless and futile. 10 After a first and second warning, break off contact with a heretic, 11 realizing that such a person is perverted and sinful and stands self-condemned.
Directives, Greetings, and Blessing.[e]12 When I send Artemas to you, or Tychicus, try to join me at Nicopolis, where I have decided to spend the winter. 13 Send Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their journey soon, and see to it that they have everything they need. 14 But let our people, too, learn to devote themselves to good works to supply urgent needs, so that they may not be unproductive.
15 All who are with me send you greetings. Greet those who love us in the faith.
Grace be with all of you.
3:1–8The list of Christian duties continues from Ti 2:9–10, undergirded again as in Ti 2:11–13 by appeal to what God in Christ has done (Ti 2:4–7; cf. Ti 2:11–14). The spiritual renewal of the Cretans, signified in God’s merciful gift of baptism (Ti 3:4–7), should be reflected in their improved attitude toward civil authority and in their Christian relationship with all (Ti 3:1–3).
3:1Magistrates and authorities: some interpreters understand these terms as referring to the principalities and powers of the heavenly hierarchy. To be open to every good enterprise: this implies being good citizens. It could also be translated “ready to do every sort of good work” (as Christians); cf. Ti 3:14.
3:8–11In matters of good conduct and religious doctrine, Titus is to stand firm.
Titus 2 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)
III. Teaching the Christian Life
Christian Behavior.[a]1 As for yourself, you must say what is consistent with sound doctrine, namely, 2 that older men should be temperate, dignified, self-controlled, sound in faith, love, and endurance. 3 Similarly, older women should be reverent in their behavior, not slanderers, not addicted to drink, teaching what is good, 4 so that they may train younger women to love their husbands and children, 5 to be self-controlled, chaste, good homemakers, under the control of their husbands, so that the word of God may not be discredited.
6 Urge the younger men, similarly, to control themselves, 7 showing yourself as a model of good deeds in every respect, with integrity in your teaching, dignity, 8 and sound speech that cannot be criticized, so that the opponent will be put to shame without anything bad to say about us.
9 Slaves are to be under the control of their masters in all respects, giving them satisfaction, not talking back to them 10 or stealing from them, but exhibiting complete good faith, so as to adorn the doctrine of God our savior in every way.
Transformation of Life.11 [b]For the grace of God has appeared, saving all 12 and training us to reject godless ways and worldly desires and to live temperately, justly, and devoutly in this age, 13 as we await the blessed hope, the appearance[c] of the glory of the great God and of our savior Jesus Christ, 14 who gave himself for us to deliver us from all lawlessness and to cleanse for himself a people as his own, eager to do what is good.
15 Say these things. Exhort and correct with all authority. Let no one look down on you.
2:1–10One of Titus’ main tasks in Crete is to become acquainted with the character of the Cretans and thereby learn to cope with its deficiencies (see Ti 1:12). The counsel is not only for Titus himself but for various classes of people with whom he must deal: older men and women (Ti 2:2–4), younger women and men (Ti 2:4–7), and slaves (Ti 2:9–10); cf. Eph 6:1–9; Col 3:18–4:1.
2:11–15Underlying the admonitions for moral improvement in Ti 2:1–10 as the moving force is the constant appeal to God’s revelation of salvation in Christ, with its demand for transformation of life.
2:13The blessed hope, the appearance: literally, “the blessed hope and appearance,” but the use of a single article in Greek strongly suggests an epexegetical, i.e., explanatory sense. Of the great God and of our savior Jesus Christ: another possible translation is “of our great God and savior Jesus Christ.”
Titus 1 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)
Greeting.[a]1 Paul, a slave of God and apostle of Jesus Christ for the sake of the faith of God’s chosen ones and the recognition of religious truth, 2 in the hope of eternal life that God, who does not lie, promised before time began, 3 who indeed at the proper time revealed his word in the proclamation with which I was entrusted by the command of God our savior, 4 to Titus, my true child in our common faith: grace and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our savior.
II. Pastoral Charge
Titus in Crete.5 [b]For this reason I left you in Crete so that you might set right what remains to be done and appoint presbyters in every town, as I directed you, 6 on condition that a man be blameless, married only once, with believing children who are not accused of licentiousness or rebellious. 7 For a bishop as God’s steward must be blameless, not arrogant, not irritable, not a drunkard, not aggressive, not greedy for sordid gain, 8 but hospitable, a lover of goodness, temperate, just, holy, and self-controlled, 9 holding fast to the true message as taught so that he will be able both to exhort with sound doctrine and to refute opponents. 10 [c]For there are also many rebels, idle talkers and deceivers, especially the Jewish Christians.[d]11 It is imperative to silence them, as they are upsetting whole families by teaching for sordid gain what they should not. 12 One of them, a prophet of their own, once said, “Cretans have always been liars, vicious beasts, and lazy gluttons.”[e]13 That testimony is true. Therefore, admonish them sharply, so that they may be sound in the faith, 14 instead of paying attention to Jewish myths and regulations of people who have repudiated the truth. 15 To the clean all things are clean, but to those who are defiled and unbelieving nothing is clean; in fact, both their minds and their consciences are tainted. 16 They claim to know God, but by their deeds they deny him. They are vile and disobedient and unqualified for any good deed.
1:1–4On the epistolary form, see note on Rom 1:1–7. The apostolate is the divinely appointed mission to lead others to the true faith and through it to eternal salvation (Ti 1:1–3).
1:5–9This instruction on the selection and appointment of presbyters, substantially identical with that in 1 Tm 3:1–7 on a bishop (see note there), was aimed at strengthening the authority of Titus by apostolic mandate; cf. Ti 2:15. In Ti 1:5, 7 and Acts 20:17, 28, the terms episkopos and presbyteros (“bishop” and “presbyter”) refer to the same persons. Deacons are not mentioned in Titus. See also note on Phil 1:1.
1:10–16This adverse criticism of the defects within the community is directed especially against certain Jewish Christians, who busy themselves with useless speculations over persons mentioned in the Old Testament, insist on the observance of Jewish ritual purity regulations, and thus upset whole families by teaching things they have no right to teach; cf. Ti 3:9; 1 Tm 1:3–10.
1:10Jewish Christians: literally, “those of the circumcision.”
1:12Cretans…gluttons: quoted from Epimenides, a Cretan poet of the sixth century B.C.
Letter to Titus: Introduction (Taipo Bible Reading Marathon Day
TITUS, abbreviated as Ti
One of the personal letters of Paul to individuals (1 Timothy,
Titus and Philemon) titled in the Name of the Addressee.
Titus was a Gentile Christian (Galatians 2:3).
Paul described Titus as his ‘true son’ (1:4).
Paul described Titus as a partner and a worker with him (2
The 17th Book of the New Testament.
Is a Pauline epistle and the seventeenth book of the New Testament of the Bible.
This Letter is also called Pastoral Letter (same as 1 Timothy and the Letter to Titus)
THE AUTHOR AND DATE OF WRITING
Paul wrote the Book of Titus around the same time he wrote 1st Timothy but certainly before he wrote 2nd Timothy (AD 67) so the date of Titus is likely around AD 66, or about one year before Paul was martyred.
Purpose of Writing:
1 Titus had to appoint men to lead the churches. Paul reminded Titus about the kind of character that a leader should have.
2 Paul advised Titus how he should teach different groups of people. These groups were the old people, the young people and slaves.
3 Titus had to emphasize the true message about Jesus Christ. He had to tell the Christians how to behave in the right way. He had to warn them about false teachers.
Titus had been working with Paul on the island called Crete. (This happened after Paul had been in prison in Rome in Acts 28.)
Paul did not have time to complete the work himself. So he left Titus to finish it. Many people considered that the people in Crete had bad characters. Paul was aware of this opinion.
The letter instructs Titus about the character of the assistants he is to choose in view of the pastoral difficulties peculiar to Crete (Ti 1:5–16). It suggests the special individual and social virtues that the various age groups and classes in the Christian community should be encouraged to acquire (Ti 2:1–10). The motivation for transformation of their lives comes from christology, especially the redemptive sacrifice of Christ and his future coming, as applied through baptism and justification (Ti 2:11–14; 3:4–8). The community is to serve as a leaven for Christianizing the social world about it (Ti 3:1–3). Good works
are to be the evidence of their faith in God (Ti 3:8); those who engage in religious controversy are, after suitable warning, to be ignored (Ti 3:9–11).
In chapter 1, Paul gives qualifications about how to choose leaders in the church, “the overseer must be above reproach”. He also warned to be aware of the rebellious men and deceivers who “turn away from truth”, there were many to be aware of (vs. 10).
In chapters 2-3, Paul teaches how believers may live healthy inside and outside of the church. He told them to live Godly lives and to be prepared for the coming Savior Jesus Christ. Paul describes how Jesus rescues us from sin in chapter 2 verses 11-
13. When a person first places their faith and trust in Jesus Christ for salvation they are saved from the penalty of sin, this is Justification, “For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all men”. While the believer is worshiping and serving God on earth they are saved from the binding power of sin, this is Sanctification, “Instructing us to deny ungodliness and worldly desires and to live sensibly, righteously and godly
in the present age”. When a believer’s life comes to an end they go to be with Jesus Christ. Here they live with Him for eternity and are safe and protected from the presence of sin, this is Glorification, “Looking for the blessed hope and the appearing of
the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus”.
2 Timothy 4 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)
Solemn Charge.[a]1 I charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who will judge the living and the dead, and by his appearing and his kingly power: 2 proclaim the word; be persistent whether it is convenient or inconvenient; convince, reprimand, encourage through all patience and teaching. 3 For the time will come when people will not tolerate sound doctrine but, following their own desires and insatiable curiosity,[b] will accumulate teachers 4 and will stop listening to the truth and will be diverted to myths. 5 But you, be self-possessed in all circumstances; put up with hardship; perform the work of an evangelist; fulfill your ministry.
Reward for Fidelity.6 [c]For I am already being poured out like a libation, and the time of my departure is at hand. 7 [d]I have competed well; I have finished the race; I have kept the faith. 8 [e]From now on the crown of righteousness awaits me, which the Lord, the just judge, will award to me on that day, and not only to me, but to all who have longed for his appearance.
IV. Personal Requests and Final Greetings
Paul’s Loneliness.9 [f]Try to join me soon, 10 for Demas, enamored of the present world, deserted me and went to Thessalonica, Crescens to Galatia,[g] and Titus to Dalmatia. 11 Luke is the only one with me. Get Mark and bring him with you, for he is helpful to me in the ministry. 12 I have sent Tychicus to Ephesus. 13 When you come, bring the cloak I left with Carpus in Troas, the papyrus rolls, and especially the parchments.
14 Alexander[h] the coppersmith did me a great deal of harm; the Lord will repay him according to his deeds. 15 You too be on guard against him, for he has strongly resisted our preaching.
16 At my first defense no one appeared on my behalf, but everyone deserted me. May it not be held against them! 17 But the Lord stood by me and gave me strength, so that through me the proclamation might be completed and all the Gentiles might hear it. And I was rescued from the lion’s mouth. 18 The Lord will rescue me from every evil threat and will bring me safe to his heavenly kingdom. To him be glory forever and ever. Amen.
Final Greeting.19 Greet Prisca and Aquila[i] and the family of Onesiphorus. 20 Erastus[j] remained in Corinth, while I left Trophimus sick at Miletus. 21 Try to get here before winter. Eubulus, Pudens, Linus,[k]Claudia, and all the brothers send greetings.
22 The Lord be with your spirit. Grace be with all of you.
4:1–5The gravity of the obligation incumbent on Timothy to preach the word can be gauged from the solemn adjuration: in the presence of God, and of Christ coming as universal judge, and by his appearance and his kingly power (2 Tm 4:1). Patience, courage, constancy, and endurance are required despite the opposition, hostility, indifference, and defection of many to whom the truth has been preached (2 Tm 4:2–5).
4:6The apostle recognizes his death through martyrdom to be imminent. He regards it as an act of worship in which his blood will be poured out in sacrifice; cf. Ex 29:38–40; Phil 2:17.
4:7At the close of his life Paul could testify to the accomplishment of what Christ himself foretold concerning him at the time of his conversion, “I will show him what he will have to suffer for my name” (Acts 9:16).
4:8When the world is judged at the parousia, all who have eagerly looked for the Lord’s appearing and have sought to live according to his teachings will be rewarded. The crown is a reference to the laurel wreath placed on the heads of victorious athletes and conquerors in war; cf. 2 Tm 2:5; 1 Cor 9:25.
4:9–13Demas either abandoned the work of the ministry for worldly affairs or, perhaps, gave up the faith itself (2 Tm 4:10). Luke (2 Tm 4:11) may have accompanied Paul on parts of his second and third missionary journeys (Acts 16:10–12; 20:5–7). Notice the presence of the first personal pronoun “we” in these Acts passages, suggesting to some that Luke (or at least some traveling companion of Paul’s) was the author of Acts. Mark, once rejected by Paul (Acts 13:13; 15:39), is now to render him a great service (2 Tm 4:11); cf. Col 4:10; Phlm 24. For Tychicus, see Eph 6:21; cf. also Acts 20:4; Col 4:7.
4:10Galatia: some manuscripts read “Gaul” or “Gallia.”
4:14–18Alexander: an opponent of Paul’s preaching (2 Tm 4:14–15), perhaps the one who is mentioned in 1 Tm 1:20. Despite Paul’s abandonment by his friends in the province of Asia (cf. 2 Tm 1:15–16), the divine assistance brought this first trial to a successful issue, even to the point of making the gospel message known to those who participated in or witnessed the trial (2 Tm 4:16–17).
2 Timothy 3New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)
The Dangers of the Last Days.[a]1 But understand this: there will be terrifying times in the last days. 2 People will be self-centered and lovers of money, proud, haughty, abusive, disobedient to their parents, ungrateful, irreligious, 3 callous, implacable, slanderous, licentious, brutal, hating what is good, 4 traitors, reckless, conceited, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God, 5 as they make a pretense of religion but deny its power. Reject them. 6 For some of these slip into homes and make captives of women weighed down by sins, led by various desires,7 always trying to learn but never able to reach a knowledge of the truth.8 Just as Jannes and Jambres opposed Moses, so they also oppose the truth—people of depraved mind, unqualified in the faith. 9 But they will not make further progress, for their foolishness will be plain to all, as it was with those two.
Paul’s Example and Teaching.[b]10 You have followed my teaching, way of life, purpose, faith, patience, love, endurance, 11 persecutions, and sufferings, such as happened to me in Antioch, Iconium, and Lystra, persecutions that I endured. Yet from all these things the Lord delivered me. 12 In fact, all who want to live religiously in Christ Jesus will be persecuted. 13 But wicked people and charlatans will go from bad to worse, deceivers and deceived. 14 But you, remain faithful to what you have learned and believed, because you know from whom you learned it, 15 and that from infancy you have known [the] sacred scriptures, which are capable of giving you wisdom for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. 16 [c]All scripture is inspired by God and is useful for teaching, for refutation, for correction, and for training in righteousness,[d]17 so that one who belongs to God may be competent, equipped for every good work.
3:1–9The moral depravity and false teaching that will be rampant in the last days are already at work (2 Tm 3:1–5). The frivolous and superficial, too, devoid of the true spirit of religion, will be easy victims of those who pervert them by falsifying the truth (2 Tm 3:6–8), just as Jannes and Jambres, Pharaoh’s magicians of Egypt (Ex 7:11–12, 22), discredited the truth in Moses’ time. Exodus does not name the magicians, but the two names are widely found in much later Jewish, Christian, and even pagan writings. Their origins are legendary.
3:10–17Paul’s example for Timothy includes persecution, a frequent emphasis in the Pastorals. Timothy is to be steadfast to what he has been taught and to scripture. The scriptures are the source of wisdom, i.e., of belief in and loving fulfillment of God’s word revealed in Christ, through whom salvation is given.
3:16–17Useful for teaching…every good work: because as God’s word the scriptures share his divine authority. It is exercised through those who are ministers of the word.
3:16All scripture is inspired by God: this could possibly also be translated, “All scripture inspired by God is useful for….” In this classic reference to inspiration, God is its principal author, with the writer as the human collaborator. Thus the scriptures are the word of God in human language. See also 2 Pt 1:20–21.
2 Timothy 2 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)
Timothy’s Conduct.1 [a]So you, my child, be strong in the grace that is in Christ Jesus. 2 And what you heard from me through many witnesses entrust to faithful people who will have the ability to teach others as well. 3 Bear your share of hardship along with me like a good soldier of Christ Jesus. 4 To satisfy the one who recruited him, a soldier does not become entangled in the business affairs of life. 5 Similarly, an athlete cannot receive the winner’s crown except by competing according to the rules. 6 The hardworking farmer ought to have the first share of the crop. 7 Reflect on what I am saying, for the Lord will give you understanding in everything.
8 [b]Remember Jesus Christ, raised from the dead, a descendant of David: such is my gospel, 9 for which I am suffering, even to the point of chains, like a criminal. But the word of God is not chained. 10 Therefore, I bear with everything for the sake of those who are chosen, so that they too may obtain the salvation that is in Christ Jesus, together with eternal glory. 11 This saying is trustworthy:
If we have died with him we shall also live with him; 12 if we persevere we shall also reign with him. But if we deny him he will deny us. 13 If we are unfaithful he remains faithful, for he cannot deny himself.
III. Instructions Concerning False Teaching
Warning Against Useless Disputes.14 [c]Remind people of these things and charge them before God[d] to stop disputing about words. This serves no useful purpose since it harms those who listen. 15 Be eager to present yourself as acceptable to God, a workman who causes no disgrace, imparting the word of truth without deviation. 16 Avoid profane, idle talk, for such people will become more and more godless,17 and their teaching will spread like gangrene. Among them are Hymenaeus and Philetus, 18 who have deviated from the truth by saying that [the] resurrection has already taken place and are upsetting the faith of some. 19 Nevertheless, God’s solid foundation stands, bearing this inscription, “The Lord knows those who are his”; and, “Let everyone who calls upon the name of the Lord avoid evil.”
20 In a large household there are vessels not only of gold and silver but also of wood and clay, some for lofty and others for humble use. 21 If anyone cleanses himself of these things, he will be a vessel for lofty use, dedicated, beneficial to the master of the house, ready for every good work. 22 So turn from youthful desires and pursue righteousness, faith, love, and peace, along with those who call on the Lord[e] with purity of heart. 23 Avoid foolish and ignorant debates, for you know that they breed quarrels. 24 A slave of the Lord should not quarrel, but should be gentle with everyone, able to teach, tolerant, 25 correcting opponents with kindness. It may be that God will grant them repentance that leads to knowledge of the truth, 26 [f]and that they may return to their senses out of the devil’s snare, where they are entrapped by him, for his will.
2:1–7This passage manifests a characteristic deep concern for safeguarding the faith and faithfully transmitting it through trustworthy people (2 Tm 2:1–2; cf. 2 Tm 1:14; 1 Tm 6:20; Ti 1:9). Comparisons to the soldier’s detachment, the athlete’s sportsmanship, and the farmer’s arduous work as the price of recompense (2 Tm 2:4–6) emphasize the need of singleness of purpose in preaching the word, even at the cost of hardship, for the sake of Christ (2 Tm 2:3).
2:8–13The section begins with a sloganlike summary of Paul’s gospel about Christ (2 Tm 2:8) and concludes with what may be part of an early Christian hymn (2 Tm 2:11b–12a; most exegetes include the rest of 2 Tm 2:12 and all of 2 Tm 2:13 as part of the quotation). The poetic lines suggest that through baptism Christians die spiritually with Christ and hope to live with him and reign with him forever, but the Christian life includes endurance, witness, and even suffering, as the final judgment will show and as Paul’s own case makes clear; while he is imprisoned for preaching the gospel (2 Tm 2:9), his sufferings are helpful to the elect for obtaining the salvation and glory available in Christ (2 Tm 2:10), who will be true to those who are faithful and will disown those who deny him (2 Tm 2:12–13).
2:14–19For those who dispute about mere words (cf. 2 Tm 2:23–24) and indulge in irreligious talk to the detriment of their listeners (2 Tm 2:16–19), see notes on 1 Tm 1:3–7; 6:20–21. Hymenaeus and Philetus (2 Tm 2:17), while accepting the Christian’s mystical death and resurrection in Christ through baptism, claimed that baptized Christians are already risen with Christ in this life and thus that there is no future bodily resurrection or eternal glory to come. The first quotation in 2 Tm 2:19 is from Nm 16:5; the other quotation is from some unidentified Jewish or Christian writing.
2:14Before God: many ancient manuscripts read “before the Lord.”
2:26Some interpreters would render this passage, “Thus they may come to their senses and, forced to do his (i.e., God’s) will, may escape the devil’s trap.” This interpretation of the Greek is possible, but the one accepted in the text seems more likely.
2 Timothy 1 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)
Greeting.[a]1 Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God for the promise of life in Christ Jesus,[b]2 to Timothy, my dear child: grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.
Thanksgiving.3 I am grateful to God, whom I worship with a clear conscience as my ancestors did,[c] as I remember you constantly in my prayers, night and day. 4 [d]I yearn to see you again, recalling your tears, so that I may be filled with joy, 5 as I recall your sincere faith that first lived in your grandmother Lois and in your mother Eunice and that I am confident lives also in you.
II. Exhortations to Timothy
The Gifts Timothy Has Received.6 For this reason, I remind you to stir into flame the gift of God[e] that you have through the imposition of my hands. 7 For God did not give us a spirit of cowardice but rather of power and love and self-control. 8 So do not be ashamed of your testimony to our Lord,[f] nor of me, a prisoner for his sake; but bear your share of hardship for the gospel with the strength that comes from God.
9 [g]He saved us and called us to a holy life, not according to our works but according to his own design and the grace bestowed on us in Christ Jesus before time began, 10 but now made manifest through the appearance of our savior Christ Jesus, who destroyed death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel, 11 [h]for which I was appointed preacher and apostle and teacher. 12 [i]On this account I am suffering these things; but I am not ashamed, for I know him in whom I have believed and am confident that he is able to guard what has been entrusted to me until that day. 13 Take as your norm the sound words that you heard from me, in the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus.14 Guard this rich trust with the help of the holy Spirit that dwells within us.
Paul’s Suffering.15 [j]You know that everyone in Asia deserted me, including Phygelus and Hermogenes. 16 [k]May the Lord grant mercy to the family of Onesiphorus because he often gave me new heart and was not ashamed of my chains. 17 But when he came to Rome, he promptly searched for me and found me. 18 May the Lord grant him to find mercy from the Lord[l] on that day. And you know very well the services he rendered in Ephesus.
1:1The promise of life in Christ Jesus: that God grants through union with Christ in faith and love; cf. Col 3:4; 1 Tm 4:8.
1:3As my ancestors did: this emphasizes the continuity of Judaism and Christianity; for a similar view, see Rom 9:3–5; Phil 3:4–6.
1:4–5Purportedly written from prison in Rome (2 Tm 1:8, 17; 4:6–8) shortly before the writer’s death, the letter recalls the earlier sorrowful parting from Timothy, commending him for his faith and expressing the longing to see him again.
1:6The gift of God: the grace resulting from the conferral of an ecclesiastical office. The imposition of my hands: see note on 1 Tm 4:14.
1:8Do not be ashamed of your testimony to our Lord: i.e., of preaching and suffering for the sake of the gospel.
1:9–10Redemption from sin and the call to holiness of life are not won by personal deeds but are freely and graciously bestowed according to God’s eternal plan; cf. Eph 1:4.
1:11Teacher: the overwhelming majority of manuscripts and Fathers read “teacher of the nations,” undoubtedly a harmonization with 1 Tm 2:7.
1:12He is able to guard…until that day: the intervening words can also be translated “what I have entrusted to him” (i.e., the fruit of his ministry) as well as “what has been entrusted to me” (i.e., the faith). The same difficult term occurs in 2 Tm 1:14, where it is modified by the adjective “rich” and used without a possessive.
1:15Keen disappointment is expressed, here and later (2 Tm 4:16), that the Christians of the province of Asia, especially Phygelus and Hermogenes, should have abandoned the writer and done nothing to defend his case in court.
1:16–18The family of Onesiphorus because he…of my chains: Onesiphorus seems to have died before this letter was written. His family is mentioned twice (here and in 2 Tm 4:19), though it was Onesiphorus himself who was helpful to Paul in prison and rendered much service to the community of Ephesus. Because the apostle complains of abandonment by all in Asia during his second imprisonment and trial, the assistance of Onesiphorus seems to have been given to Paul during his first Roman imprisonment (A.D. 61–63).
1:18Lord…Lord: the first “Lord” here seems to refer to Christ, the second “Lord” to the Father.
Second Letter to Timothy: Introduction (Taipo Bible Reading
Marathon Day 736)
2nd Letter of Paul to TIMOTHY, often written as 2 TIMOTHY.
One of the personal letters of Paul to individuals (1 Timothy, Titus and Philemon) titled in the Name of the Addressee.
DATE OF WRITING
The letter is issued about 4 years after the First Letter.
Paul wrote 2 Timothy from a dark and damp Roman prison cell, just before his death in AD 67.
The 16th Book of the New Testament.
Is a Pauline epistle and the sixteenth book of the New Testament
of the Bible.
This Letter is also called Pastoral Letter (same as 1 Timothy and the Letter to Titus)
Paul is the author of this letter (see 1:1; 10:1). It is stamped
with his style and contains more autobiographical material (The
letter tells us about his life and the things that he did) than
any of his other writings.
It is traditionally considered to be the last epistle he wrote
before his death.
Purpose of Writing:
It was written to further instruct Timothy and to explain his own
personal affairs. It is the last letter written by Paul, a sort
of last will and testimony and is of great importance as it tells
as how he fared just before his death. It is more personal in
tone than First Timothy and shows us how very pitiable was his
plight in these last days.
According to the letter, Paul urges Timothy not to have a “spirit of timidity” and not to “be ashamed to testify about our Lord” (1:7–8). He also entreats Timothy to come to him before winter, and to bring Mark with him (cf. Philippians 2:22). He was anticipating that “the time of his departure was at hand” (4:6), and he exhorts his “son Timothy” to all diligence and steadfastness in the face of false teachings, with advice about combating them with reference to the teachings of the past, and to patience under persecution (1:6–15), and to a faithful discharge of all the duties of his office (4:1–5), with all the solemnity of one who was about to appear before the Judge of the quick and the dead.
Paul clearly anticipates his being put to death and realities beyond in his valedictory found in 2 Timothy 4:6–8: “For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at hand. I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith: Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing.”(source:wikipedia)
This letter is much more personal than the first one. Paul urges him to be strong in his belief in the Lord (1:1-7). He should not be ashamed of the Lord or of Paul. He must be prepared to suffer for the gospel (1:8-2:13).
As he had done in the first letter, Paul warns against the false teachers (2:14-19). Timothy must be a noble servant of Christ (2:20-26). In the last days, people will do awful things (3:1-9). But Timothy must continue to do what he has learned and knows. He must do what the scriptures say (3:10-17). He must preach the gospel because it is urgent that people hear it (4:1-5).
Paul then talks about his own life and what he expects to happen (4:6-8). Then he asks Timothy to come and he tells him about his situation (4:9-18). He ends the letter with greetings to his friends and asks the Lord to bless Timothy (4:19-22).
Book Contents Summary.
I. Introduction, 1:1-5.
II. Exhortations to Timothy. 1:6-2 end.
1. To steadfastness in the gospel. 1:6 end.
2. To patient endurance of suffering, 2:1-13.
3. To faithfulness as a pastor, 2:14-26 end.
III. Warnings to Timothy. 3:1-4:5.
1. Concerning the perilous, 3:1-13.
2. Concerning his duties in such times, 3:14-4:5.
IV. Paul’s View of Death, 4:6-18.
1. His satisfaction and hope at its approach, 6-8.
2. His hope during this loneliness and need, 9-18.
V. Conclusion, 4:19 end.
1 Timothy 6New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)
Rules for Slaves.1 [a]Those who are under the yoke of slavery must regard their masters as worthy of full respect, so that the name of God and our teaching[b] may not suffer abuse. 2 Those whose masters are believers must not take advantage of them because they are brothers but must give better service because those who will profit from their work are believers and are beloved.
V. False Teaching and True Wealth
Teach and urge these things.[c]3 Whoever teaches something different and does not agree with the sound words of our Lord Jesus Christ and the religious teaching 4 is conceited, understanding nothing, and has a morbid disposition for arguments and verbal disputes. From these come envy, rivalry, insults, evil suspicions, 5 and mutual friction among people with corrupted minds, who are deprived of the truth, supposing religion to be a means of gain. 6 [d]Indeed, religion with contentment is a great gain. 7 For we brought nothing into the world, just as we shall not be able to take anything out of it. 8 If we have food and clothing, we shall be content with that. 9 Those who want to be rich are falling into temptation and into a trap and into many foolish and harmful desires, which plunge them into ruin and destruction. 10 For the love of money is the root of all evils, and some people in their desire for it have strayed from the faith and have pierced themselves with many pains.
Exhortations to Timothy.[e]11 But you, man of God,[f] avoid all this. Instead, pursue righteousness, devotion, faith, love, patience, and gentleness. 12 Compete well for the faith. Lay hold of eternal life, to which you were called when you made the noble confession in the presence of many witnesses. 13 I charge [you] before God, who gives life to all things, and before Christ Jesus, who gave testimony under Pontius Pilate for the noble confession, 14 to keep the commandment without stain or reproach until the appearance of our Lord Jesus Christ 15 that the blessed and only ruler will make manifest at the proper time, the King of kings and Lord of lords, 16 who alone has immortality, who dwells in unapproachable light, and whom no human being has seen or can see. To him be honor and eternal power. Amen.
Right Use of Wealth.[g]17 Tell the rich in the present age not to be proud and not to rely on so uncertain a thing as wealth but rather on God, who richly provides us with all things for our enjoyment. 18 Tell them to do good, to be rich in good works, to be generous, ready to share, 19 thus accumulating as treasure a good foundation for the future, so as to win the life that is true life.
20 O Timothy, guard what has been entrusted to you. Avoid profane babbling and the absurdities of so-called knowledge. 21 By professing it, some people have deviated from the faith.
Grace be with all of you.
6:1–2Compare the tables for household duties, such as that of Col 3:18–4:1. Domestic relationships derive new meaning from the Christian faith.
6:1Our teaching: this refers to the teaching of the Christian community.
6:2b–10Timothy is exhorted to maintain steadfastly the position outlined in this letter, not allowing himself to be pressured into any other course. He must realize that false teachers can be discerned by their pride, envy, quarrelsomeness, and greed for material gain. 1 Tm 6:6 is rather obscure and is interpreted, and therefore translated, variously. The suggestion seems to be that the important gain that religion brings is spiritual, but that there is material gain, too, up to the point of what is needed for physical sustenance (cf. 1 Tm 6:17–19).
6:6Contentment: the word autarkeia is a technical Greek philosophical term for the virtue of independence from material goods (Aristotle, Cynics, Stoics).
6:11–16Timothy’s position demands total dedication to God and faultless witness to Christ (1 Tm 6:11–14) operating from an awareness, through faith, of the coming revelation in Jesus of the invisible God (1 Tm 6:15–16).
6:17–19Timothy is directed to instruct the rich, advising them to make good use of their wealth by aiding the poor.
6:20–21A final solemn warning against the heretical teachers, with what seems to be a specific reference to gnosticism, the great rival and enemy of the church for two centuries and more (the Greek word for “knowledge” is gnōsis). If gnosticism is being referred to here, it is probable that the warnings against “speculations” and “myths and genealogies” (cf. especially 1 Tm 1:4; Ti 3:9) involve allusions to that same kind of heresy. Characteristic of the various gnostic systems of speculation was an elaborate mythology of innumerable superhuman intermediaries, on a descending scale (“genealogies”), between God and the world. Thus would be explained the emphasis upon Christ’s being the one mediator (as in 1 Tm 2:5). Although fully developed gnosticism belonged to the second and later centuries, there are signs that incipient forms of it belonged to Paul’s own period.