ZEPHANIAH 3 (Taipo Bible Reading Marathon Day 512)

Zephaniah 3New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Chapter 3

Jerusalem Reproached

Ah! Rebellious and polluted,
    the tyrannical city![a]
It listens to no voice,
    accepts no correction;
In the Lord it has not trusted,
    nor drawn near to its God.
Its officials within it
    are roaring lions;
Its judges are desert wolves
    that have no bones to gnaw by morning.
Its prophets are reckless,
    treacherous people;
Its priests profane what is holy,
    and do violence to the law.
But the Lord in its midst is just,
    doing no wrong;
Morning after morning rendering judgment
    unfailingly, at dawn;
    the wicked, however, know no shame.

I have cut down nations,
    their battlements are laid waste;
I have made their streets deserted,
    with no one passing through;
Their cities are devastated,
    with no one dwelling in them.
I said, “Surely now you will fear me,
    you will accept correction;
They cannot fail to see
    all I have brought upon them.”
Yet the more eagerly they have done
    all their corrupt deeds.

The Nations Punished and Jerusalem Restored

Therefore, wait for me—oracle of the Lord
    until the day when I arise as accuser;
For it is my decision to gather nations,
    to assemble kingdoms,
In order to pour out upon them my wrath,
    all my blazing anger;
For in the fire of my passion
    all the earth will be consumed.

For then I will make pure
    the speech of the peoples,
That they all may call upon the name of the Lord,
    to serve him with one accord;
10 From beyond the rivers of Ethiopia
    and as far as the recesses of the North,
    they shall bring me offerings.

11     On that day
You will not be ashamed
    of all your deeds,
    when you rebelled against me;
For then I will remove from your midst
    the proud braggarts,
And you shall no longer exalt yourself
    on my holy mountain.
12 But I will leave as a remnant in your midst
    a people humble and lowly,
Who shall take refuge in the name of the Lord
13     the remnant of Israel.
They shall do no wrong
    and speak no lies;
Nor shall there be found in their mouths
    a deceitful tongue;
They shall pasture and lie down
    with none to disturb them.
14 Shout for joy, daughter Zion!
    sing joyfully, Israel!
Be glad and exult with all your heart,
    daughter Jerusalem!
15 The Lord has removed the judgment against you,
    he has turned away your enemies;
The King of Israel, the Lord, is in your midst,
    you have no further misfortune to fear.
16     On that day, it shall be said to Jerusalem:
Do not fear, Zion,
    do not be discouraged!
17 The Lord, your God, is in your midst,
    a mighty savior,
Who will rejoice over you with gladness,
    and renew you in his love,
Who will sing joyfully because of you,
18     as on festival days.

I will remove disaster from among you,
    so that no one may recount your disgrace.
19 At that time I will deal
    with all who oppress you;
I will save the lame,
    and assemble the outcasts;
I will give them praise and renown
    in every land where they were shamed.
20 At that time I will bring you home,
    and at that time I will gather you;
For I will give you renown and praise,
    among all the peoples of the earth,
When I bring about your restoration
    before your very eyes, says the Lord.

Footnotes:

  1. 3:1 The tyrannical city: Jerusalem.

ZEPHANIAH 2 (Taipo Bible Reading Marathon Day 512)

Zephaniah 2New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Chapter 2

[a]Gather, gather yourselves together,
    O nation without shame!
Before you are driven away,
    like chaff that disappears;
Before there comes upon you
    the blazing anger of the Lord;
Before there comes upon you
    the day of the Lord’s anger.
Seek the Lord,
    all you humble of the land,
    who have observed his law;
Seek justice,
    seek humility;
Perhaps you will be sheltered
    on the day of the Lord’s anger.

Judgment on the Nations

For Gaza shall be forsaken,
    and Ashkelon shall be a waste,
Ashdod they shall drive out at midday,
    and Ekron[b] shall be uprooted.
Ah! You who dwell by the seacoast,
    the nation of Cherethites,[c]
    the word of the Lord is against you!
O Canaan, land of the Philistines,
    I will leave you to perish without an inhabitant!
You shall become fields for shepherds,
    and folds for flocks.
The seacoast shall belong
    to the remnant of the house of Judah;
    by the sea they shall pasture.
In the houses of Ashkelon
    they shall lie down in the evening.
For the Lord their God will take care of them,
    and bring about their restoration.

I have heard the taunts uttered by Moab,
    and the insults of the Ammonites,[d]
When they taunted my people
    and made boasts against their territory.
Therefore, as I live—
    oracle of the Lord of hosts—
    the God of Israel,
Moab shall become like Sodom,
    the Ammonites like Gomorrah:
A field of weeds,
    a salt pit,
    a waste forever.
The remnant of my people shall plunder them,
    the survivors of my nation dispossess them.
10 This will be the recompense for their pride,
    because they taunted and boasted against
    the people of the Lord of hosts.
11 The Lord shall inspire them with terror
    when he makes all the gods of earth waste away;
Then the distant shores of the nations,
    each from its own place,
    shall bow down to him.

12 You too, O Cushites,[e]
    shall be slain by the sword of the Lord.
13 He will stretch out his hand against the north,
    to destroy Assyria;
He will make Nineveh a waste,
    dry as the desert.
14 In her midst flocks shall lie down,
    all the wild life of the hollows;
The screech owl and the desert owl
    shall roost in her columns;
The owl shall hoot from the window,
    the raven croak from the doorway.
15 Is this the exultant city[f]
    that dwelt secure,
That told itself,
    “I and there is no one else”?
How it has become a waste,
    a lair for wild animals!
Those who pass by it
    hiss, and shake their fists!

Footnotes:

  1. 2:1–3 This oracle is a classic description of the day of the Lord as an overwhelming disaster, concluding with a call for repentance and reform. Nation without shame: Judah.
  2. 2:4 Gaza…Ashkelon…Ashdod…Ekron: cities of the Philistine confederation.
  3. 2:5 Cherethites: a synonym for, or subgroup of, the Philistines, which may be associated with Crete, a part of the larger Aegean area from which the Philistines came.
  4. 2:8 Moab…Ammonites: Judah’s neighbors to the East across the Jordan.
  5. 2:12 Cushites: the Ethiopians, who had ruled Egypt a generation before Zephaniah’s career.
  6. 2:15 The exultant city: Nineveh. Hiss, and shake their fists: gestures of derision.

ZEPHANIAH 1 (Taipo Bible Reading Marathon Day 511)

Zephaniah 1New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Chapter 1

The word of the Lord which came to Zephaniah, the son of Cushi, the son of Gedaliah, the son of Amariah, the son of Hezekiah,[a] in the days of Josiah, the son of Amon, king of Judah.

The Day of the Lord: Judgment on Judah

I will completely sweep away all things
    from the face of the land—oracle of the Lord.
I will sweep away human being and beast alike,
    I will sweep away the birds of the sky,
    and the fish of the sea.
I will make the wicked stumble;
    I will eliminate the people
    from the face of the land—oracle of the Lord.
I will stretch out my hand against Judah,
    and against all the inhabitants of Jerusalem;
I will eliminate from this place
    the last vestige of Baal,
    the name of the idolatrous priests.
And those who bow down on the roofs
    to the host of heaven,[b]
And those who bow down to the Lord
    but swear by Milcom;
And those who have turned away from the Lord,
    and those who have not sought the Lord,
    who have not inquired of him.

Silence in the presence of the Lord God!
    for near is the day of the Lord,
Yes, the Lord has prepared a sacrifice,
    he has consecrated his guests.[c]
    On the day of the Lord’s sacrifice
I will punish the officials and the king’s sons,
    and all who dress in foreign apparel.
I will punish, on that day,
    all who leap over the threshold,[d]
Who fill the house of their master
    with violence and deceit.
10     On that day—oracle of the Lord
A cry will be heard from the Fish Gate,
    a wail from the Second Quarter,[e]
    loud crashing from the hills.
11 Wail, O inhabitants of Maktesh!
    for all the merchants are destroyed,
    all who weigh out silver, done away with.

12     At that time,
I will search Jerusalem with lamps,
    I will punish the people
    who settle like dregs in wine,[f]
Who say in their hearts,
    “The Lord will not do good,
    nor will he do harm.”
13 Their wealth shall be given to plunder
    and their houses to devastation;
They will build houses,
    but not dwell in them;
They will plant vineyards,
    but not drink their wine.
14 Near is the great day of the Lord,
    near and very swiftly coming.
The sound of the day of the Lord! Piercing—
    there a warrior shrieks!
15 A day of wrath is that day,
    a day of distress and anguish,
    a day of ruin and desolation,
A day of darkness and gloom,
    a day of thick black clouds,
16 A day of trumpet blasts and battle cries
    against fortified cities,
    against lofty battlements.
17 I will hem the people in
    till they walk like the blind,
    because they have sinned against the Lord;
And their blood shall be poured out like dust,
    and their bowels like dung.
18 Neither their silver nor their gold
    will be able to save them.
On the day of the Lord’s wrath,
    in the fire of his passion,
    all the earth will be consumed.
For he will make an end, yes, a sudden end,
    of all who live on the earth.

Footnotes:

  1. 1:1 Hezekiah: it is possible, but not certain, that Zephaniah’s ancestor was King Hezekiah who reigned in Judah from 715 to 687 B.C. (2 Kgs 18–20).
  2. 1:5 The host of heaven: the sun, moon, planets, and stars, the worship of which became widespread in Judah under Assyrian influence. Milcom: the god of the Ammonites; cf.1 Kgs 11:5, 7, 33; 2 Kgs 23:13.
  3. 1:7 He has consecrated his guests: God has consecrated the troops, presumably foreign, who have been invited to share in the spoil on the day of slaughter.
  4. 1:9 Leap over the threshold: the reference may be to a religious ritual like that practiced by the priests of the Philistine deity Dagon (1 Sm 5:5).
  5. 1:10–11 The Second Quarter…Maktesh: sections of Jerusalem (cf. 2 Kgs 22:14).
  6. 1:12 Settle like dregs in wine: those who are overconfident because, like the sediment that settles to the bottom of a bottle of wine, they have remained at peace and undisturbed for a long time.

Book of ZEPHANIAH (Taipo Bible Reading Marathon Day 511)

Book of ZEPHANIAH (Taipo Bible Reading Marathon Day 511)

ZEPHANIAH

The name Zephaniah means “defended by God.”

DATE

The title of the prophecy informs us that the ministry of Zephaniah took place during the reign of Josiah (640–609 B.C.), not long before the fall of Jerusalem in 587 B.C.

BIBLE CATEGORY

9th Book of the 12 Minor Prophets (Old Testament)

THE AUTHOR

Zephaniah 1:1 identifies the author of the Book of Zephaniah as the Prophet Zephaniah.

The Book

The Book of Zephaniah contains the fundamental ideas of the preaching of Zephaniah. The scheme of the book in its
present form is as follows:

a) 1:2-2:3. Warnings about the “day of the Lord”, a Dies irae, dies illa[6] of the Old Testament. The judgment of the Lord will descend on Judah and Jerusalem as a punishment for the awful degeneracy in religious life (1:4-7a); it will
extend to all classes of the people (1:7b-13), and will be attended with all the horrors of a frightful catastrophe (1:14- 18); therefore, repent and seek the Lord (2:1-3).

b) 2:4-15. Not only Jerusalem, but the entire world is subject to judgment, including the Philistines, (4-7) Moabites, Ammonites, (8-11) Ethiopians, (12) Assyrians and Ninevites (13-15).

c) 3:1-8. The Prophet focuses once again on Jerusalem: “Woe to the provoking, and redeemed city … She hath not hearkened to the voice, neither hath she received discipline.” The severest reckoning will be required of the leading classes of the civil community, and of the Prophets and priests as the directors of public worship.

d) 3:9-20. With a prophetic glance at the Kingdom of God of the future, in which all the world unites and turns to God, the prosperity of the Messianic Kingdom will be enjoyed.

e) 3:9-20. The last message of Zephaniah also has a Messianic coloring, although not to an extent comparable with that which may be found in the Book of Isaiah.
Following are the book’s four sections:

I. The Day of the Lord: Judgment on Judah (1:2–2:3)

II. Judgment on the Nations (2:4–15)

III. Jerusalem Reproached (3:1–7)

IV. The Nations Punished and Jerusalem Restored (3:8–20)

Habakkuk 3 (Taipo Bible Reading Marathon Day 510)

Habakkuk 3New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Chapter 3

Hymn About God’s Reign

Prayer of Habakkuk, the prophet. According to Shigyonot.[a]

O Lord, I have heard your renown,
    and am in awe, O Lord, of your work.
In the course of years revive it,[b]
    in the course of years make yourself known;
    in your wrath remember compassion!

[c]God came from Teman,[d]
    the Holy One from Mount Paran.
Selah

His glory covered the heavens,
    and his praise filled the earth;
    his splendor spread like the light.
He raised his horns high,
    he rejoiced on the day of his strength.
Before him went pestilence,
    and plague[e] followed in his steps.
He stood and shook the earth;
    he looked and made the nations tremble.
Ancient mountains were shattered,
    the age-old hills bowed low,
    age-old orbits[f] collapsed.

The tents of Cushan trembled,
    the pavilions of the land of Midian.[g]
Was your anger against the rivers, O Lord?
    your wrath against the rivers,
    your rage against the sea,[h]
That you mounted your steeds,
    your victorious chariot?
You readied your bow,
    you filled your bowstring with arrows.
Selah

You split the earth with rivers;
10     at the sight of you the mountains writhed.
The clouds poured down water;
    the deep roared loudly.
The sun[i] forgot to rise,
11     the moon left its lofty station,
At the light of your flying arrows,
    at the gleam of your flashing spear.

12 In wrath you marched on the earth,
    in fury you trampled the nations.
13 You came forth to save your people,
    to save your anointed one.[j]
You crushed the back of the wicked,
    you laid him bare, bottom to neck.
Selah

14 [k]You pierced his head with your shafts;
    his princes you scattered with your stormwind,
    as food for the poor in unknown places.
15 You trampled the sea with your horses
    amid the churning of the deep waters.

16 I hear, and my body trembles;
    at the sound, my lips quiver.
Decay invades my bones,
    my legs tremble beneath me.
I await the day of distress
    that will come upon the people who attack us.

17 For though the fig tree does not blossom,
    and no fruit appears on the vine,
Though the yield of the olive fails
    and the terraces produce no nourishment,
Though the flocks disappear from the fold
    and there is no herd in the stalls,
18 Yet I will rejoice in the Lord
    and exult in my saving God.
19 God, my Lord, is my strength;
    he makes my feet swift as those of deer
    and enables me to tread upon the heights.[l]

For the leader; with stringed instruments.

Footnotes:

  1. 3:1 Shigyonot: a Hebrew technical term no longer understood, but probably a musical notation regarding the following hymn. This term, the references to the leader and stringed instruments at the end of the hymn (v. 19), and the use of the term selah in vv. 3,9, and 13 are found elsewhere in the Bible only in the Psalter, and they indicate that, like the psalms, this poem was once used in worship.
  2. 3:2 In the course of years revive it: a plea for God to renew the works of the past.
  3. 3:3–15 Cf. the theophanies in Dt 33:2–3; Jgs 5:4–5; Ps 18:8–16; 68:8–9; 77:17–21; 97:1–5; Na 1:3–6, etc. Conventional language is employed to describe the appearance of the Lord, as in Ex 19:16–19.
  4. 3:3 Teman: a region in Edom. Mount Paran: in the territory of Edom, or the northern part of the Sinai peninsula.
  5. 3:5 Pestilence…plague: these may be figures who are part of the heavenly armies God leads into battle.
  6. 3:6 Age-old orbits: the regular paths through the skies of heavenly bodies are disrupted at the appearance of the divine warrior, as are the ancient mountains on earth. Such cosmic disruption is typical of divine appearances (Ps 18:8; Na 1:5).
  7. 3:7 Cushan…Midian: the inhabitants of the area southeast of Judah where the divine march originates (Teman, Mount Paran), who are shaken, together with the cosmos, at God’s appearance.
  8. 3:8 Rivers…sea: the forces of chaos personified as yam (Sea) and nahar (River) try to destroy the order God imposed at creation by sweeping past their boundaries and covering the earth. Their mention here and in v. 15 emphasizes that God is both creator and deliverer, subduing historical enemies and cosmic forces.
  9. 3:10–11 Sun…moon: heavenly figures who, like pestilence and plague (v. 5), serve in God’s army, or are startled at God’s appearance, as are the ancient constellations (v. 6).
  10. 3:13 Your anointed one: the theocratic king, the head of God’s people. The back of the wicked: this may refer both to God’s cosmic enemy, River/Sea, and to the leader of Israel’s historical enemy.
  11. 3:14 The last two lines of this verse are obscure in Hebrew and difficult to translate.
  12. 3:19 The heights: this term can also mean “backs” and may be an image of conquest over the poet’s foes.

Habakkuk 2 (Taipo Bible Reading Marathon Day 510)

Habakkuk 2New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Chapter 2

I will stand at my guard post,
    and station myself upon the rampart;
I will keep watch to see what he will say to me,
    and what answer he will give to my complaint.

God’s Response

Then the Lord answered me and said:
    Write down the vision;[a]
Make it plain upon tablets,
    so that the one who reads it may run.
For the vision is a witness for the appointed time,
    a testimony to the end; it will not disappoint.
If it delays, wait for it,
    it will surely come, it will not be late.
See, the rash have no integrity;
    but the just one who is righteous because of faith shall live.[b]

Sayings Against Tyrants

[c]Indeed wealth is treacherous;
    a proud man does not succeed.
He who opens wide his throat like Sheol,
    and is insatiable as death,
Who gathers to himself all the nations,
    and collects for himself all the peoples—
Shall not all these take up a taunt against him,
    and make a riddle about him, saying:

Ah! you who store up what is not yours
    —how long can it last!—
    you who load yourself down with collateral.
Will your debtors[d] not rise suddenly?
    Will they not awake, those who make you tremble?
    You will become their spoil!
Because you plundered many nations,
    the remaining peoples shall plunder you;
Because of the shedding of human blood,
    and violence done to the land,
    to the city and to all who live in it.

Ah! you who pursue evil gain for your household,
    setting your nest on high
    to escape the reach of misfortune!
10 You have devised shame for your household,
    cutting off many peoples, forfeiting your own life;
11 For the stone in the wall shall cry out,[e]
    and the beam in the frame shall answer it!

12 Ah! you who build a city by bloodshed,
    and who establish a town with injustice!
13 Is this not from the Lord of hosts:
    peoples toil[f] for what the flames consume,
    and nations grow weary for nothing!
14 But the earth shall be filled
    with the knowledge of the Lord’s glory,
    just as the water covers the sea.

15 Ah! you who give your neighbors
    the cup of your wrath to drink, and make them drunk,
    until their nakedness is seen!
16 You are filled with shame instead of glory;
    drink, you too, and stagger!
The cup from the Lord’s right hand shall come around to you,
    and utter shame shall cover your glory.
17 For the violence done to Lebanon[g] shall cover you,
    and the destruction of the animals shall terrify you;
Because of the shedding of human blood,
    and violence done to the land,
    to the city and to all who live in it.

18 Of what use is the carved image,[h]
    that its maker should carve it?
Or the molten image, the lying oracle,
    that its very maker should trust in it,
    and make mute idols?
19 Ah! you who say to wood, “Awake!”
    to silent stone, “Arise!”
    Can any such thing give oracles?
It is only overlaid with gold and silver,
    there is no breath in it at all.
20 But the Lord is in his holy temple;
    silence before him, all the earth!

Footnotes:

  1. 2:2 Write down the vision: the vision is written down for two reasons: so that a herald may carry and proclaim its contents to the people, and so that the reception of the vision and its truth can be verified by its fulfillment (v. 3).
  2. 2:4 The just one who is righteous because of faith shall live: the faithful survive the impending doom because they trust in God’s justice and wait patiently for God to carry it out. Several New Testament passages cite these words (Rom 1:17; Gal 3:11; cf. Hb 10:38) to confirm the teaching that people receive justification and supernatural life through faith in Christ.
  3. 2:5 This verse describes any tyrant who, like the Babylonians, possesses insatiable greed.
  4. 2:7 Debtors: the Hebrew term can mean either debtors or creditors, and this double meaning is likely intended: the debtor nations rise up against their creditor nation and become its creditors in the reversal of affairs described here.
  5. 2:11–12 The palaces, built at the expense of gross injustice (vv. 6–10), call down vengeance on their builders. This is typical prophetic language for the condemnation of social crimes within Israel and Judah.
  6. 2:13 Peoples toil: those oppressed by the Babylonians do not benefit from their work.Verses 13–14 break the pattern of reversal in the oracles that precede and may have been added by an editor.
  7. 2:17 The violence done to Lebanon: the destruction of the cedar forests of Lebanon, used in lavish building projects by the great conquerors; cf. Is 14:8; 37:24. The destruction of the animals: the killing off of the wild animals through excessive hunting by the same conquerors; cf. Bar 3:16.
  8. 2:18–20 Idolatrous worship is here shown to be folly by contrasting idols with the majesty of the one true God. Verse 18 may originally have followed v. 19, since the term “Ah!” begins each new saying in this section.

Habakkuk 1 (Taipo Bible Reading Marathon Day 509)

Habakkuk 1New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Chapter 1

The oracle which Habakkuk the prophet received in a vision.

Habakkuk’s First Complaint

How long, O Lord, must I cry for help[a]
    and you do not listen?
Or cry out to you, “Violence!”
    and you do not intervene?
Why do you let me see iniquity?
    why do you simply gaze at evil?
Destruction and violence are before me;
    there is strife and discord.
This is why the law is numb[b]
    and justice never comes,
For the wicked surround the just;
    this is why justice comes forth perverted.

God’s Response

[c]Look over the nations and see!
    Be utterly amazed!
For a work is being done in your days
    that you would not believe, were it told.
For now I am raising up the Chaldeans,
    that bitter and impulsive people,
Who march the breadth of the land
    to take dwellings not their own.
They are terrifying and dreadful;
    their right and their exalted position are of their own making.
Swifter than leopards are their horses,
    and faster than desert wolves.
Their horses spring forward;
    they come from far away;
    they fly like an eagle hastening to devour.
All of them come for violence,
    their combined onslaught, a stormwind
    to gather up captives like sand.
10 They scoff at kings,
    ridicule princes;
They laugh at any fortress,
    heap up an earthen ramp, and conquer it.
11 Then they sweep through like the wind and vanish—
    they make their own strength their god![d]

Habakkuk’s Second Complaint

12 Are you not from of old, O Lord,
    my holy God, immortal?
Lord, you have appointed them for judgment,[e]
    O Rock,[f] you have set them in place to punish!
13 Your eyes are too pure to look upon wickedness,
    and the sight of evil you cannot endure.
Why, then, do you gaze on the faithless in silence
    while the wicked devour those more just than themselves?
14 You have made mortals like the fish in the sea,
    like creeping things without a leader.
15 He[g] brings them all up with a hook,
    and hauls them away with his net;
He gathers them in his fishing net,
    and then rejoices and exults.
16 Therefore he makes sacrifices to his net,[h]
    and burns incense to his fishing net;
For thanks to them his portion is rich,
    and his meal lavish.
17 Shall they, then, keep on drawing his sword
    to slaughter nations without mercy?

Footnotes:

  1. 1:2–4 The prophet complains about God’s apparent disregard for Judah’s internal evils in language that echoes the preaching of prophets like Amos, Isaiah, and Jeremiah.
  2. 1:4 The law is numb: because the Lord has been silent, the Law, whether in the form of the scroll found in the Temple in the time of Josiah (2 Kgs 22) or in the form of divine instruction given by priests and prophets, has proved ineffective and so appeared to be cold, unreceptive, and powerless. For the Law to be credible, the Lord must see to it that the wicked are punished and the just rewarded.
  3. 1:5–7 Habakkuk interprets the Babylonian defeat of Egypt at Carchemish (605 B.C.) as the answer to his complaint: the Lord will send the Chaldean empire against Judah as punishment for their sins.
  4. 1:11 The primary aim of military campaigns by ancient Near Eastern rulers was usually the gathering of spoils and the collection of tribute rather than the annexation of territory. However, in the eighth century B.C., the Assyrians began to administer many conquered territories as provinces.
  5. 1:12–2:1 Appointed them for judgment: this complaint is directed against the violent Babylonians, the very nation God chose to punish Judah.
  6. 1:12 Rock: an ancient title celebrating the Lord’s power and fidelity; cf. Dt 32:4; Is 26:4;30:29; Ps 18:3, 32, 47; 95:1.
  7. 1:15 He: the Babylonian king (cf. vv. 6, 13), who easily conquers other nations and treats them as objects for his entertainment and enrichment.
  8. 1:16 He makes sacrifices to his net: the leader attributes victory to the military weapons he wields; he and his weapons have won victory, not any god.