1Kings Chapter 14 (Bible Marathon Day 152)

1Kings Chapter 14 (Bible Marathon Day 152)

Ahijah Announces Jeroboam’s Downfall.*
At that time Abijah, son of Jeroboam, took sick.
a So Jeroboam said to his wife, “Go and disguise yourself so that no one will recognize you as Jeroboam’s
wife. Then go to Shiloh, where you will find Ahijah the prophet. It was he who spoke the word that made me
king over this people.
Take along ten loaves, some cakes, and a jar of honey, and go to him. He will tell you what will happen to
the child.”
The wife of Jeroboam did so. She left and went to Shiloh and came to the house of Ahijah.

Now Ahijah could not see because age had dimmed his sight.
But the LORD said to Ahijah: Jeroboam’s wife is coming to consult you about her son, for he is sick. Thus
and so you must tell her. When she comes, she will be in disguise.
So Ahijah, hearing the sound of her footsteps as she entered the door, said, “Come in, wife of Jeroboam.
Why are you in disguise? For my part, I have been commissioned to give you bitter news.
Go, tell Jeroboam, ‘Thus says the LORD, the God of Israel: I exalted you from among the people and made
you ruler of my people Israel.
I tore the kingdom away from the house of David and gave it to you. Yet you have not been like my servant
David, who kept my commandments and followed me with his whole heart, doing only what is right in my
You have done more evil than all who were before you: you have gone and made for yourself other gods
and molten images to provoke me; but me you have cast behind your back.
b Therefore, I am bringing evil upon the house of Jeroboam:
I will cut off from Jeroboam’s line every male
—bond or free—in Israel;
I will burn up what is left of the house of Jeroboam
as dung is burned, completely.
c Anyone of Jeroboam’s line who dies in the city,
dogs will devour;
anyone who dies in the field,
the birds of the sky will devour.
For the LORD has spoken!’
As for you, leave, and go home! As you step inside the city, the child will die,
and all Israel will mourn him and bury him, for he alone of Jeroboam’s line will be laid in the grave, since in
him alone of Jeroboam’s house has something pleasing to the LORD, the God of Israel, been found.
The LORD will raise up for himself a king over Israel who will cut off the house of Jeroboam—today, at this
very moment!
The LORD will strike Israel like a reed tossed about in the water and will pluck out Israel from this good land
which he gave their ancestors, and will scatter them beyond the River,* because they made asherahs for
themselves, provoking the LORD.
He will give up Israel because of the sins Jeroboam has committed and caused Israel to commit.”
So Jeroboam’s wife left and went back; when she came to Tirzah and crossed the threshold of her house,
the child died.
He was buried and all Israel mourned him, according to the word of the LORD spoken through his servant
Ahijah the prophet.
The rest of the acts of Jeroboam, how he fought and how he reigned, these are recorded in the book of the
chronicles of the kings of Israel.
The length of Jeroboam’s reign was twenty-two years. He rested with his ancestors, and Nadab his son
succeeded him as king.

Reign of Rehoboam.
* Rehoboam, son of Solomon, became king in Judah. Rehoboam was forty-one years old when he became
king, and he reigned seventeen years in Jerusalem, the city in which, out of all the tribes of Israel, the LORD
chose to set his name. His mother’s name was Naamah the Ammonite.
Judah did evil in the LORD’s sight and they angered him even more than their ancestors had done.
They, too, built for themselves high places, sacred pillars, and asherahs,* upon every high hill and under
every green tree.
There were also pagan priests in the land. Judah imitated all the abominable practices of the nations whom
the LORD had driven out of the Israelites’ way.
* In the fifth year of King Rehoboam, Shishak, king of Egypt, attacked Jerusalem.
d He took everything, including the treasures of the house of the LORD and the treasures of the house of the
king, even the gold shields Solomon had made.
To replace them, King Rehoboam made bronze shields, which he entrusted to the officers of the guard on
duty at the entrance of the royal house.
Whenever the king visited the house of the LORD, those on duty would carry the shields, and then return
them to the guardroom.
The rest of the acts of Rehoboam, with all that he did, are recorded in the book of the chronicles of the kings
of Judah.
There was war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam all their days.
Rehoboam rested with his ancestors; he was buried with his ancestors in the City of David. His mother’s
name was Naamah the Ammonite. His son Abijam succeeded him as king.

* [14:1–20] The last major unit of the Jeroboam story recounts the story of Ahijah of Shiloh’s oracle
condemning the entire house of Jeroboam; this is followed by a formulaic notice of Jeroboam’s death and
the succession of his son. Compare the first unit of the Jeroboam story, 11:26–43, which recounted Ahijah’s
oracle proclaiming Jeroboam’s kingship, followed by the formulaic notice of the death of Solomon.

* [14:15] The River: the Euphrates; see note on 5:1.

* [14:21–16:34] The treatment of the events of Jeroboam’s reign shows that the author believes that the
political division of the kingdoms embodies the Lord’s will, but that their religious separation is undesirable.
The Israelites are, in effect, one people of God under two royal administrations. This complex arrangement is
reflected in the way 1–2 Kings organizes the history of the divided kingdoms. Each reign is treated as a unity:
the kings, whether of Israel or Judah, are legitimate rulers. But the accounts of northern and southern kings
are interwoven in the order in which each came to the throne, without regard to which kingdom they ruled:
the people of God is one.

* [14:21] The account of each king’s reign follows the same basic pattern: a formulaic introduction, a
theological evaluation based on religious fidelity, a brief account of an event from the king’s reign, and a
formulaic conclusion.

* [14:23] Asherahs: see note on Ex 34:13.

* [14:25–28, 30] The narrator recounts Shishak’s campaign here to imply that it was punishment for Judah’s
evil, and perhaps to cast him as supporting Jeroboam in his constant warfare with Rehoboam. (Shishak was
named as Jeroboam’s protector and patron in 11:40.) Egyptian records of the campaign list one hundred
fifty cities conquered in Israel as well as Judah, but Jerusalem is not one of them. Chronicles has a parallel
version of this account in 2 Chr 12:9–11.

a. [14:2] 1 Kgs 11:29–39.

b. [14:10] 1 Kgs 15:29–30.

c. [14:11] 1 Kgs 16:4; 21:22.

d. [14:26] 1 Kgs 10:16–17.

1Kings Chapter 13 (Bible Marathon Day 152)

1Kings Chapter 13 (Bible Marathon Day 152)

A man of God came from Judah to Bethel by the word of the LORD, while Jeroboam was standing at the
altar to burn incense.
a He cried out against the altar by the word of the LORD: “Altar, altar, thus says the LORD: A child shall be
born to the house of David, Josiah by name, who shall slaughter upon you the priests of the high places
who burn incense upon you, and they shall burn human bones upon you.”
b He also gave a sign that same day and said: “This is the sign that the LORD has spoken: The altar shall
be torn apart and the ashes on it shall be scattered.”
When the king heard the word of the man of God which he was crying out against the altar in Bethel,
Jeroboam stretched forth his hand from the altar and said, “Seize him!” But the hand he stretched forth
against him withered, so that he could not draw it back.
(The altar was torn apart and the ashes from the altar were scattered, in accordance with the sign the man of
God gave by the word of the LORD.)
Then the king said to the man of God, “Entreat the LORD, your God, and intercede for me that my hand may
be restored.” So the man of God entreated the LORD, and the king’s hand was restored as it was before.
The king told the man of God, “Come with me to the house for some refreshment so that I may give you a
The man of God said to the king, “If you gave me half your palace, I would not go with you, nor eat bread or
drink water in this place.
For I was instructed by the word of the LORD: Do not eat bread or drink water, and do not return by the way
you came.”
So he departed by another road and did not go back the way he had come to Bethel.
Prophetic Disunity.*
There was an old prophet living in Bethel, whose son came and told him all that the man of God had done
that day in Bethel. When his sons repeated to their father the words the man of God had spoken to the king,
the father asked them, “Which way did he go?” So his sons pointed out to him the road taken by the man of
God who had come from Judah.
Then he said to his sons, “Saddle the donkey for me.” When they had saddled it, he mounted
and followed the man of God, whom he found seated under a terebinth. When he asked him, “Are you the
man of God who came from Judah?” he answered, “Yes.”
Then he said, “Come home with me and have some bread.”
“I cannot return with you or go with you, and I cannot eat bread or drink water with you in this place,” he
“for I was told by the word of the LORD: You shall not eat bread or drink water there, and do not go back the
way you came.”
But he said to him, “I, too, am a prophet like you, and an angel told me by the word of the LORD: Bring him
back with you to your house to eat bread and drink water.” But he was lying to him.
So he went back with him, and ate bread and drank water in his house.
But while they were sitting at table, the word of the LORD came to the prophet who had brought him back,
and he cried out to the man of God who had come from Judah: “Thus says the LORD: Because you
rebelled against the charge of the LORD and did not keep the command which the LORD, your God, gave
but returned and ate bread and drank water in the place where he told you, Do not eat bread or drink water,
your corpse shall not be brought to the grave of your ancestors.”
After he had eaten bread and drunk, they saddled for him the donkey that belonged to the prophet who had
brought him back,
and he set out. But a lion met him on the road, and killed him. His body lay sprawled on the road, and the
donkey remained standing by it, and so did the lion.
Some passersby saw the body lying in the road, with the lion standing beside it, and carried the news to the
city where the old prophet lived.
On hearing it, the prophet who had brought him back from his journey said: “It is the man of God who
rebelled against the charge of the LORD. The LORD has delivered him to a lion, which mangled and killed
him, according to the word which the LORD had spoken to him.”
Then he said to his sons, “Saddle the donkey for me,” and they saddled it.
He went off and found the body sprawled on the road with the donkey and the lion standing beside it. The
lion had not eaten the body nor had it harmed the donkey.
The prophet lifted up the body of the man of God and put it on the donkey, and brought him back to the city to
mourn and to bury him.
He laid the man’s body in his own grave, and they mourned over it: “Alas, my brother!”
c After he had buried him, he said to his sons, “When I die, bury me in the grave where the man of God is
buried. Lay my bones beside his.
d For the word which he proclaimed by the word of the LORD against the altar in Bethel and against all the
temples on the high places in the cities of Samaria shall certainly come to pass.”
Even after this, Jeroboam did not turn from his evil way, but again made priests for the high places from
among the common people. Whoever desired it was installed as a priest of the high places.
This is the account of the sin of the house of Jeroboam for which it was to be cut off and destroyed from the
face of the earth.

* [13:11–34] The next major unit illustrates how Jeroboam’s cultic innovations begin to alienate prophetic
figures of the two kingdoms. Nevertheless, the Lord’s word is stronger than any human attempt to thwart it.
The two prophets also foreshadow the destinies of their respective kingdoms. Israel’s experiment with
idolatry can tempt Judah to abandon its faithfulness to the Lord. If Judah succumbs, and no longer speaks
the word that can call Israel back to the true God, then the only hope for reuniting the two kingdoms will be
when they have both died the death of exile.

a. [13:2] 2 Kgs 23:16.

b. [13:3] 2 Kgs 23:15.

c. [13:31] 2 Kgs 23:17–18.

d. [13:32] 2 Kgs 23:19–20.

Kings of Israel

Kings of Israel.
Ist King: Saul
2nd King: David (most beloved King)
3rd: Solomon (Wisdoms.. author of Ecclesiastes and Song of Solomon)

After King Solomon, the Kingdom was Divided between Israel and Judah

>the kingdom of Judah resulted from the break-up of the United kingdom of Israel (1020 to about 930 BCE) after the northern tribes refused to accept Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, as their king. At first, only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David, but soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah.

>next Kings in the photos

1Kings Chapter 12 (Bible Marathon Day 151)

1Kings Chapter 12 (Bible Marathon Day 151)

Political Disunity.*
Rehoboam went to Shechem,* where all Israel had come to make him king.
When Jeroboam, son of Nebat, heard about it, he was still in Egypt. He had fled from King Solomon and
remained in Egypt,
and they sent for him. Then Jeroboam and the whole assembly of Israel came and they said to Rehoboam,

“Your father put a heavy yoke on us. If you now lighten the harsh servitude and the heavy yoke your father
imposed on us, we will be your servants.”
He answered them, “Come back to me in three days,” and the people went away.
King Rehoboam asked advice of the elders who had been in his father Solomon’s service while he was
alive, and asked, “How do you advise me to answer this people?”
They replied, “If today you become the servant of this people and serve them, and give them a favorable
answer, they will be your servants forever.”
But he ignored the advice the elders had given him, and asked advice of the young men who had grown up
with him and were in his service.
He said to them, “What answer do you advise that we should give this people, who have told me, ‘Lighten
the yoke your father imposed on us’?”
The young men who had grown up with him replied, “This is what you must say to this people who have told
you, ‘Your father made our yoke heavy; you lighten it for us.’ You must say, ‘My little finger is thicker than my
father’s loins.
My father put a heavy yoke on you, but I will make it heavier. My father beat you with whips, but I will beat you
with scorpions.’”
Jeroboam and the whole people came back to King Rehoboam on the third day, as the king had instructed
them: “Come back to me in three days.”
Ignoring the advice the elders had given him, the king gave the people a harsh answer.
He spoke to them as the young men had advised: “My father made your yoke heavy, but I will make it
heavier. My father beat you with whips, but I will beat you with scorpions.”
a The king did not listen to the people, for this turn of events was from the LORD: he fulfilled the word the
LORD had spoken through Ahijah the Shilonite to Jeroboam, son of Nebat.
b When all Israel saw that the king did not listen to them, the people answered the king:
“What share have we in David?*
We have no heritage in the son of Jesse.
To your tents, Israel!
Now look to your own house, David.”
So Israel went off to their tents.
But Rehoboam continued to reign over the Israelites who lived in the cities of Judah.
King Rehoboam then sent out Adoram,* who was in charge of the forced labor, but all Israel stoned him to
death. King Rehoboam then managed to mount his chariot and flee to Jerusalem.
And so Israel has been in rebellion against the house of David to this day.
When all Israel heard that Jeroboam had returned, they summoned him to an assembly and made him king
over all Israel. None remained loyal to the house of David except the tribe of Judah alone.
Divine Approval.*
On his arrival in Jerusalem, Rehoboam assembled all the house of Judah and the tribe of Benjamin—one
hundred and eighty thousand elite warriors—to wage war against the house of Israel, to restore the kingdom
to Rehoboam, son of Solomon.
However, the word of God came to Shemaiah, a man of God:
Say to Rehoboam, son of Solomon, king of Judah, and to all the house of Judah and to Benjamin, and to
the rest of the people:
Thus says the LORD: You must not go out to war against your fellow Israelites. Return home, each of you, for
it is I who have brought this about. They obeyed the word of the LORD and turned back, according to the
word of the LORD.
Jeroboam built up Shechem in the hill country of Ephraim and lived there. Then he left it and built up Penuel.
Jeroboam’s Cultic Innovations.*
Jeroboam thought to himself: “Now the kingdom will return to the house of David.
If this people go up to offer sacrifices in the house of the LORD in Jerusalem, the hearts of this people will
return to their master, Rehoboam, king of Judah, and they will kill me and return to Rehoboam, king of
c The king took counsel, made two calves of gold, and said to the people: “You have been going up to
Jerusalem long enough. Here are your gods, O Israel, who brought you up from the land of Egypt.”
d And he put one in Bethel, the other in Dan.*
This led to sin, because the people frequented these calves in Bethel and in Dan.
He also built temples on the high places and made priests from among the common people who were not
Divine Disapproval.*
Jeroboam established a feast in the eighth month on the fifteenth day of the month like the pilgrimage feast in
Judah, and he went up to the altar. He did this in Bethel, sacrificing to the calves he had made. He stationed
in Bethel the priests of the high places he had built.
Jeroboam went up to the altar he built in Bethel on the fifteenth day of the eighth month, the month he
arbitrarily chose. He established a feast for the Israelites, and he went up to the altar to burn incense.
* [12:1–14:20] Like the story of the reign of Solomon, the story of the reign of Jeroboam is concentrically
organized. Ahijah’s oracle of promise to Jeroboam (11:26–43) belongs to both stories, ending that of
Solomon (see note on 1:1–11:43) and beginning that of Jeroboam; it corresponds to Ahijah’s oracle of
condemnation in 14:1–20. Within those literary boundaries are accounts of political (12:1–20) and religious
(13:11–34) disunity between Israel and Judah. The center of the story is the account of Jeroboam’s
heterodox cultic innovations (12:26–31).

* [12:1–20] The first major unit of the Jeroboam story was Ahijah’s oracle (11:26–40), followed by the notice
of Solomon’s death (11:41–43). This is the second major unit. It tells how Jeroboam came to the throne of
Israel after the intransigence of Solomon’s son Rehoboam provoked the northern tribes to secede from
Jerusalem. The political disunity of the two kingdoms fulfills the word spoken by Ahijah. Compare 13:11–32,
where Jeroboam’s improper cultic innovations produce religious disunity as well. The scene is concentrically
arranged: narrative introduction, first interview, first consultation, second consultation, second interview,
narrative conclusion. Chronicles has a parallel version of this story in 2 Chr 10:1–19.

* [12:1] Shechem: chief city of the northern tribes, where a covenant had previously been made between the
Lord and his people and a stone of witness had been erected in memory of the event (Jos 24:25–27). All
Israel: see note on 4:7–19.

* [12:16] What share have we in David?: even in David’s time the northern tribes seemed ready to withdraw
from the union with Judah (2 Sm 20:1). The unreasonable attitude of Rehoboam toward them intensified the
discontent caused by the oppression of Solomon (v. 4) and thus precipitated the political separation of the
two kingdoms. In the view of the Deuteronomistic historian (1 Kgs 11:35–36; 12:24), this was by the Lord’s

* [12:18] Adoram: the name is a shortened form of “Adoniram” (see 4:6; 5:28). If this is the same Adoram
who held the position in David’s day (2 Sm 20:24), he would have been a very old man.

* [12:21–25] The center of this unit is a divine oracle delivered by a man of God of the Southern Kingdom in
which the Lord affirms his approval of the secession of the northern tribes. Compare 13:1–10, where
another man of God from Judah proclaims the Lord’s condemnation of Jeroboam’s religious separatism.
Chronicles has a very similar version of Shemaiah’s oracle in 2 Chr 11:1–4.

* [12:26–31] At the center of the story of Jeroboam the narrator describes how the king went beyond the
political separation of Israel from Judah to create a separatist religious system as well. Jeroboam feared that
continued worship in the single Temple in Jerusalem would threaten the political independence of his
kingdom. To prevent this he established sanctuaries with non-levitical clergy in his own territory. At two of the
sanctuaries he set up golden calves, which the narrator depicts as idols. Thus begins what will later be
called “the sin of Jeroboam” (13:34), a theme that will be echoed throughout 1–2 Kings in the
condemnations of almost every king of the Northern Kingdom. Historically, Jeroboam’s innovations were not
as heterodox as our narrative portrays them. Bethel was an ancient and traditional site for worship of the
Lord; and the calves were probably intended to be a dais for the deity invisibly enthroned upon them, rather
like the cherubim atop the ark of the covenant.

* [12:29] Bethel…Dan: at the southern and northern boundaries of the separate kingdom of Israel, where
sanctuaries had existed in the past (Gn 12:8; 13:3–4; 28:10–22; 35:1–15; Jgs 18:1–31).

* [12:32–13:10] This unit of the Jeroboam story corresponds to 12:21–25. Before Jeroboam’s cultic
innovations, a man of God from Judah proclaimed the Lord’s approval of the political separation of the
kingdoms. After Jeroboam’s cultic innovations, a man of God from Judah proclaims the Lord’s disapproval of
Israel’s religious separatism. The unit begins with a long, detailed introduction about the dedication festival
Jeroboam holds at Bethel (12:32–33); then follows the scene of the ceremony disrupted by the oracle of the
man of God (13:1–10).

a. [12:15] 1 Kgs 11:26–39.

b. [12:16] 2 Sm 20:1.

c. [12:28] Ex 32:1–10.

d. [12:29] Tb 1:5.

1Kings Chapter 11 (Bible Marathon Day 151)

1Kings Chapter 11 (Bible Marathon Day 151)

The End of Solomon’s Reign.*
a King Solomon loved many foreign women besides the daughter of Pharaoh—Moabites, Ammonites,
Edomites, Sidonians, Hittites—
b from nations of which the LORD had said to the Israelites: You shall not join with them and they shall not
join with you, lest they turn your hearts to their gods. But Solomon held them* close in love.
He had as wives seven hundred princesses and three hundred concubines, and they turned his heart.
When Solomon was old his wives had turned his heart to follow other gods, and his heart was not entirely
with the LORD, his God, as the heart of David his father had been.
Solomon followed Astarte, the goddess of the Sidonians, and Milcom, the abomination of the Ammonites.
Solomon did what was evil in the sight of the LORD, and he did not follow the LORD unreservedly as David
his father had done.
Solomon then built a high place to Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, and to Molech, the abomination of
the Ammonites, on the mountain opposite Jerusalem.
He did the same for all his foreign wives who burned incense and sacrificed to their gods.
c The LORD became angry with Solomon, because his heart turned away from the LORD, the God of Israel,
who had appeared to him twice
and commanded him not to do this very thing, not to follow other gods. But he did not observe what the
LORD commanded.
So the LORD said to Solomon: Since this is what you want, and you have not kept my covenant and the
statutes which I enjoined on you, I will surely tear the kingdom away from you and give it to your servant.
d But I will not do this during your lifetime, for the sake of David your father; I will tear it away from your son’s
Nor will I tear away the whole kingdom. I will give your son one tribe for the sake of David my servant and for
the sake of Jerusalem, which I have chosen.
Threats to Solomon’s Kingdom.*
The LORD then raised up an adversary* against Solomon: Hadad the Edomite, who was of the royal line in
e Earlier, when David had conquered Edom, Joab, the commander of the army, while going to bury the
slain, killed every male in Edom.
Joab and all Israel remained there six months until they had killed off every male in Edom.
But Hadad, with some Edomite servants of his father, fled toward Egypt. Hadad was then a young boy.
They left Midian and came to Paran; they gathered men from Paran and came to Egypt, to Pharaoh, king of
Egypt; he gave Hadad a house, appointed him rations, and assigned him land.
Hadad won great favor with Pharaoh, so that he gave him in marriage his sister-in-law, the sister of Queen
Tahpenes, his own wife.
Tahpenes’ sister bore Hadad a son, Genubath. Tahpenes weaned him in Pharaoh’s palace. And
Genubath lived in Pharaoh’s house, with Pharaoh’s own sons.
When Hadad in Egypt heard that David rested with his ancestors and that Joab, the commander of the army,
was dead, he said to Pharaoh, “Give me leave to return to my own land.”
Pharaoh said to him, “What do you lack with me, that you are seeking to return to your own land?” He
answered, “Nothing, but please let me go!”
God raised up against Solomon another adversary, Rezon, the son of Eliada, who had fled from his lord,
Hadadezer, king of Zobah,
f when David was slaughtering them. Rezon gathered men about him and became leader of a marauding
band. They went to Damascus, settled there, and made him king in Damascus.
Rezon was an adversary of Israel as long as Solomon lived, in addition to the harm done by Hadad, and he
felt contempt for Israel. He became king over Aram.
Ahijah Announces Jeroboam’s Kingship.*
Solomon had a servant, Jeroboam, son of Nebat, an Ephraimite from Zeredah with a widowed mother
named Zeruah. He rebelled against the king.
This is how he came to rebel. King Solomon was building Millo, closing up the breach of the City of David,
his father.
Jeroboam was a very able man, and when Solomon saw that the young man was also a good worker, he
put him in charge of all the carriers conscripted from the house of Joseph.
At that time Jeroboam left Jerusalem, and the prophet Ahijah the Shilonite met him on the road. The prophet
was wearing a new cloak,* and when the two were alone in the open country,
g Ahijah took off his new cloak, tore it into twelve pieces,
h and said to Jeroboam: “Take ten pieces for yourself. Thus says the LORD, the God of Israel: I am about to
tear the kingdom out of Solomon’s hand and will give you ten of the tribes.
He shall have one tribe for the sake of my servant David, and for the sake of Jerusalem, the city I have
chosen out of all the tribes of Israel.
For they have forsaken me and have bowed down to Astarte, goddess of the Sidonians, Chemosh, god of
Moab, and Milcom, god of the Ammonites. They have not walked in my ways or done what is right in my
eyes, according to my statutes and my ordinances, as David his father did.
Yet I will not take any of the kingdom from Solomon himself, but will keep him a prince as long as he lives, for
the sake of David my servant, whom I have chosen, who kept my commandments and statutes.
But I will take the kingdom from his son’s hand and give it to you—that is, the ten tribes.
I will give his son one tribe, that David my servant may always have a holding before me in Jerusalem, the
city I have chosen, to set my name there.
You I will take and you shall reign over all that you desire and shall become king of Israel.
If, then, you heed all that I command you, walking in my ways, and do what is right in my eyes by keeping my
statutes and my commandments like David my servant, I will be with you. I will build a lasting house for you,
just as I did for David; I will give Israel to you.
I will humble David’s line for this, but not forever.”
When Solomon tried to have Jeroboam killed, Jeroboam fled to Shishak, king of Egypt. He remained in
Egypt until Solomon’s death.
The rest of the acts of Solomon, with all that he did and his wisdom, are recorded in the book of the acts of
Solomon was king in Jerusalem over all Israel for forty years.
Solomon rested with his ancestors and was buried in the City of David, his father, and Rehoboam his son
succeeded him as king.
* [11:1–13] The next major unit of the Solomon story corresponds to 3:1–15. Like the earlier passage it
includes the narrator’s remarks about Solomon’s foreign wives and his building projects, and a divine word
commenting on Solomon’s conduct. However, where 3:1–15 is generally positive toward Solomon, the
present passage is unrelievedly negative. Chronicles has no parallel to this material.

* [11:2] Them: both the nations and their gods.

* [11:14–25] This unit of the Solomon story corresponds to 2:12b–46, where Solomon secured his kingdom
by eliminating three men he perceived as threats. In this passage, we learn of two foreigners the Lord raised
up as “adversaries” to Solomon as early as the beginning of his reign (despite Solomon’s complacent claim
to Hiram in 5:18 that he had no adversary). In the next section we will learn of a third opponent, Israelite
rather than foreign, who turns out to be the “servant of Solomon” announced by the Lord in 11:11. Chronicles
has no parallel to this material.

* [11:14] Adversary: Hebrew śatan, one who stands in opposition; in this context a political opponent.

* [11:26–43] The last major unit of the Solomon story tells how the prophet Ahijah announces the divine
intention to take the larger part of Solomon’s kingdom from his control and give it to Jeroboam, Solomon’s
servant. This counterbalances the first unit of the story, 1:1–2:12a, where another prophet, Nathan,
managed to influence the royal succession and obtain the throne for Solomon. The unit is also the first part of
the story of Jeroboam (11:26–14:20). It thus acts as a literary hinge connecting the two stories. Chronicles
contains a death notice for Solomon in 2 Chr 9:29–31.

* [11:29] The narrator uses a powerful wordplay here. In the Hebrew consonantal text, Ahijah’s cloak (slmh)
is indistinguishable from Solomon’s name (slmh). Since a prophetic gesture such as Ahijah’s was
understood as effecting the event it announced, Ahijah’s tearing of his cloak embodies the divine action that
will tear Solomon’s kingdom apart (cf. vv. 11–13).

a. [11:1–3] Dt 17:17; Sir 47:19–20.

b. [11:2] Ex 34:16.

c. [11:9] 1 Kgs 3:4–15; 6:11–13; 9:2–9.

d. [11:12–13] 1 Kgs 11:34–36.

e. [11:15] 2 Sm 8:13–14.

f. [11:24] 2 Sm 8:3–6.

g. [11:30] 1 Sm 15:27–28.

h. [11:31–32] 1 Kgs 12:20.

1Kings Chapter 10 (Bible Marathon Day 150)

1Kings Chapter 10 (Bible Marathon Day 150)

Solomon’s Listening Heart: the Queen of Sheba.*
a The queen of Sheba,* having heard a report of Solomon’s fame, came to test him with subtle questions.
She arrived in Jerusalem with a very numerous retinue, and with camels bearing spices, a large amount of
gold, and precious stones. She came to Solomon and spoke to him about everything that she had on her
King Solomon explained everything she asked about, and there was nothing so obscure that the king could
not explain it to her.
When the queen of Sheba witnessed Solomon’s great wisdom, the house he had built,
the food at his table, the seating of his ministers, the attendance and dress of his waiters, his servers, and the
burnt offerings he offered in the house of the LORD, it took her breath away.
“The report I heard in my country about your deeds and your wisdom is true,” she told the king.
“I did not believe the report until I came and saw with my own eyes that not even the half had been told me.
Your wisdom and prosperity surpass the report I heard.
Happy are your servants, happy these ministers of yours, who stand before you always and listen to your
Blessed be the LORD, your God, who has been pleased to place you on the throne of Israel. In his enduring
love for Israel, the LORD has made you king to carry out judgment and justice.”
Then she gave the king one hundred and twenty gold talents, a very large quantity of spices, and precious
stones. Never again did anyone bring such an abundance of spices as the queen of Sheba gave to King
Hiram’s fleet, which used to bring gold from Ophir, also brought from there a very large quantity of almug*
wood and precious stones.
With this wood the king made supports for the house of the LORD and for the house of the king, and harps
and lyres for the singers. Never again was any such almug wood brought or seen to the present day.
King Solomon gave the queen of Sheba everything she desired and asked for, besides what King Solomon
gave her from Solomon’s royal bounty. Then she returned with her servants to her own country.

Solomon’s Riches: Domestic Affairs.*
b The gold that came to Solomon in one year weighed six hundred and sixty-six gold talents,
in addition to what came from the tolls on travelers, from the traffic of merchants, and from all the kings of
Arabia and the governors of the country.
c King Solomon made two hundred shields of beaten gold (six hundred shekels of gold went into each
and three hundred bucklers of beaten gold (three minas of gold went into each buckler); and the king put
them in the house of the Forest of Lebanon.
The king made a large ivory throne, and overlaid it with refined gold.
The throne had six steps, a back with a round top, and an arm on each side of the seat, with two lions
standing next to the arms,
and twelve other lions standing there on the steps, two to a step, one on either side of each step. Nothing like
this was made in any other kingdom.
All King Solomon’s drinking vessels were gold, and all the utensils in the house of the Forest of Lebanon
were pure gold. There was no silver, for in Solomon’s time silver was reckoned as nothing.
For the king had a fleet of Tarshish ships* at sea with Hiram’s fleet. Once every three years the fleet of
Tarshish ships would come with a cargo of gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks.

Solomon’s Renown.
Thus King Solomon surpassed all the kings of the earth in riches and wisdom.
And the whole world sought audience with Solomon, to hear the wisdom God had put into his heart.
They all brought their yearly tribute: vessels of silver and gold, garments, weapons, spices, horses and
mules—what was due each year.

Solomon’s Riches: Chariots and Horses.
d Solomon amassed chariots and horses; he had one thousand four hundred chariots and twelve thousand
horses; these he allocated among the chariot cities and to the king’s service in Jerusalem.
e The king made silver as common in Jerusalem as stones, and cedars as numerous as the sycamores of
the Shephelah.
Solomon’s horses were imported from Egypt and from Cilicia, where the king’s merchants purchased them.
A chariot imported from Egypt cost six hundred shekels of silver, a horse one hundred and fifty shekels; they
were exported at these rates to all the Hittite and Aramean kings.
* [10:1–13] The sub-unit on Solomon’s wisdom contrasts with 3:16–28. There Solomon’s gifts led him to
listen to the humblest of his subjects; he accomplished justice and was revered by all his people. Here the
emphasis is on his clever speech to a foreign monarch. She is duly impressed by the glory of his court, but it
is she, not Solomon, who recalls the monarch’s duty of establishing justice (v. 9). The unit is interrupted
briefly by a remark about Solomon’s maritime commerce (10:11–12).

* [10:1] Queen of Sheba: women rulers among the Arabs are recorded in eighth-century B.C. Assyrian
inscriptions. Sheba was for centuries the leading principality in what is now Yemen.

* [10:11–12] Almug: the identification of this wood is unknown.

* [10:14–29] The material on Solomon’s riches, like that in 4:1–5:8, is organized around domestic affairs,
international affairs, and chariots and horses (see note on 4:1–5:8), but contrasts with that earlier passage.
There, Solomon’s domestic administration produced prosperity for all Judah and Israel (4:20); here the
focus is on the wealth and luxury of Solomon’s own palace (10:14–21). There his international hegemony
assured peace for all Judah and Israel (5:5); here his maritime ventures simply bring him more and more
wealth (9:26–28; 10:11–12, 22). There even his livestock benefited from his prudent administration; here
chariotry and horses are just another commodity to be traded (10:26–29).

* [10:22] Tarshish ships: large, strong vessels for long voyages. Tarshish was probably the ancient
Tartessus, a Phoenician colony in southern Spain. Ivory, apes, and peacocks: the Hebrew words are
obscure and the translations conjectural; however, the reference is certainly to exotic luxury items.

a. [10:1] Mt 12:42; Lk 11:31.

b. [10:14] Dt 17:17; Sir 47:18.

c. [10:16] 1 Kgs 14:26–28; 2 Sm 8:7.

d. [10:26] 1 Kgs 5:6; Dt 17:16; 2 Chr 1:14; 9:25.

e. [10:27] Dt 17:17; Sir 47:18.

1Kings Chapter 9 (Bible Marathon Day 150)

1Kings Chapter 9 (Bible Marathon Day 150)

Promise and Warning to Solomon.
After Solomon finished building the house of the LORD, the house of the king, and everything else that he
wanted to do,
a the LORD appeared to Solomon a second time, as he had appeared to him in Gibeon.
The LORD said to him: I have heard the prayer of petition which you offered in my presence. I have
consecrated this house which you have built and I set my name there forever; my eyes and my heart shall
be there always.
As for you, if you walk before me as David your father did, wholeheartedly and uprightly, doing all that I have
commanded you, keeping my statutes and ordinances,
b I will establish your royal throne over Israel forever, as I promised David your father: There shall never be
wanting someone from your line on the throne of Israel.
But if ever you and your descendants turn from following me, fail to keep my commandments and statutes
which I set before you, and proceed to serve other gods and bow down to them,
I will cut off Israel from the land I gave them and repudiate the house I have consecrated for my name. Israel
shall become a proverb and a byword among all nations,
c and this house shall become a heap of ruins. Every passerby shall gasp in horror and ask, “Why has the
LORD done such things to this land and to this house?”
And the answer will come: “Because they abandoned the LORD, their God, who brought their ancestors out
of the land of Egypt, and they embraced other gods, bowing down to them and serving them. That is why the
LORD has brought upon them all this evil.”

After Building the Temple.*
d After the twenty years during which Solomon built the two houses, the house of the LORD and the house of
the king—
Hiram, king of Tyre, supplying Solomon with all the cedar wood, fir wood, and gold he wished, and King
Solomon giving Hiram in return twenty cities in the land of Galilee—
Hiram left Tyre to see the cities Solomon had given him, but he was not satisfied with them.
So he said, “What are these cities you have given me, my brother?”* And he called them the land of Cabul,
as they are called to this day.
Hiram, however, had sent King Solomon one hundred and twenty talents of gold.*
This is an account of the conscript labor force King Solomon raised in order to build the house of the LORD,
his own house, Millo,* the wall of Jerusalem, Hazor, Megiddo, Gezer
(Pharaoh, king of Egypt, had come up and taken Gezer and, after destroying it by fire and slaying all the
Canaanites living in the city, had given it as a farewell gift to his daughter, Solomon’s wife;
Solomon then rebuilt Gezer), Lower Beth-horon,
Baalath, Tamar in the desert of Judah,
all his cities for supplies, cities for chariots and cities for cavalry, and whatever Solomon desired to build in
Jerusalem, in Lebanon, and in the entire land under his dominion.
All the people who were left of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, who were not
those of their descendants who were left in the land and whom the Israelites had not been able to destroy
under the ban—these Solomon conscripted as forced laborers, as they are to this day.
But Solomon made none of the Israelites forced laborers, for they were his fighting force, his ministers,
commanders, adjutants, chariot officers, and cavalry.
There were five hundred fifty overseers answerable to Solomon’s governors for the work, directing the
people engaged in the work.
e As soon as Pharaoh’s daughter went up from the City of David to her house, which he had built for her,
Solomon built Millo.
Three times a year Solomon used to offer burnt offerings and communion offerings on the altar which he had
built to the LORD, and to burn incense before the LORD.
Thus he completed the temple.*

Solomon’s Gifts.*
King Solomon also built a fleet at Ezion-geber, which is near Elath on the shore of the Red Sea in the land of
To this fleet Hiram sent his own servants, expert sailors, with the servants of Solomon.
They went to Ophir, and obtained four hundred and twenty talents of gold and brought it to King Solomon.

* [9:10–25] This unit of the Solomon story corresponds to 5:15–32. It comprises the same two themes,
negotiations with Hiram of Tyre (vv. 10–14) and use of conscripted labor (vv. 15–23); the last two verses
mark the end of the account of Solomon’s building projects (vv. 24–25). Chronicles has an incomplete
parallel in 2 Chr 8:1–13.

* [9:13] Brother: a term for a treaty partner; cf. 20:32–33. Cabul: the meaning is uncertain; perhaps “of no

* [9:14] The talent was a measure of weight that varied in the course of ancient Israel’s history from forty-five
to one hundred thirty pounds. This would mean that, at the least, Hiram sent five thousand pounds of gold to
Solomon, and the figure may be as much as three times that amount.

* [9:15] Millo: probably means ground fill, and may refer to an artificial earthwork or platform of stamped
ground south of the Temple area. It was begun by David (2 Sm 5:9); cf. 1 Kgs 9:24; 11:27.

* [9:25] With these words the account of the construction and dedication of the Temple, which began in 6:1,
comes to a close. The verb “complete” (shillem) is a play on Solomon’s name (shelomo); see also the note
on 7:51.

* [9:26–10:29] The next major unit of the Solomon story returns to the theme of the three gifts the Lord gave
Solomon in 3:12–13: a listening heart (10:1–13), riches (9:26–27; 10:14–22, 26–29), universal renown
(10:23–25). In 3:16–5:14, where the same three themes structure the passage, the emphasis was on the
benefits these gifts brought to the whole nation; here it is on the luxury they afford to Solomon’s own court.
The material in 9:26–28; 10:11–12, 22 dealing with Solomon’s commercial fleet corresponds to the material
on Solomon’s international affairs in 5:1–5. Chronicles has a partial parallel to this material in 2 Chr 9:17–28;
see also 2 Chr 1:14–17.

* [9:26] Ezion-geber…Edom: the first mention of maritime commerce in the Israelite kingdom; Edom was
subject after David conquered it; cf. 2 Sm 8:13–14.

a. [9:2] 1 Kgs 3:4–15; 6:11–13; 11:9–13.

b. [9:5] 2 Sm 7:16.

c. [9:8] Dt 29:23; Jer 22:8.

d. [9:10] 1 Kgs 6:38–7:1.

e. [9:24] 1 Kgs 3:1; 7:8.