Leviticus Chapter 12 (Bible Marathon Day 51)

Leviticus Chapter 12 (Bible Marathon Day 51)
{12:1} And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:
{12:2} Speak to the sons of Israel, and you shall say to them: A woman, if she has received the seed to bear a male, shall be unclean for seven days, just as in the days of separation due to menstruation.
{12:3} And on the eighth day, the little infant shall be circumcised.
{12:4} Yet truly, she herself shall remain for thirty-three days in the blood of her purification. She shall not touch anything holy, nor shall she enter into the Sanctuary, until the days of her purification are completed.
{12:5} But if she will bear a female, she shall be unclean for two weeks, according to the custom of her monthly flow, and she shall remain in the blood of her purification for sixty-six days.
{12:6} And when the days of her purification have been completed, for a son or for a daughter, she shall bring to the door of the tabernacle of the testimony, a one-year-old lamb as a holocaust, and a young pigeon or a turtledove for sin, and she shall deliver them to the priest.
{12:7} He shall offer them in the sight of the Lord, and he shall pray for her. And so she shall be cleansed from the issue of her blood. This is the law for one who bears a male or a female.
{12:8} And if her hand has not obtained or been able to offer a lamb, she shall take two turtledoves or two young pigeons: one as a holocaust, and the other for sin. And the priest shall pray for her, and so she shall be cleansed.

* [12:25] The mother has two stages of uncleanness or impurity: the first where her uncleanness is as severe as during her menstrual period and is contagious to profane persons and objects (cf. 15:1924), and the second where she does not contaminate persons and objects but is still impure to what is holy, such as the sanctuary (12:4) or sacrifices. The implication is that in the second stage she may resume sexual relations with her husband (which would be prohibited in the first stage according to 18:19).

* [12:3] Circumcision is the sign of the covenant between God and Israel (Gn 17:127) and allows full participation in the religious community (Ex 12:4349; Jos 5:210). This command was fulfilled after Jesus’ birth (Lk 2:21).

* [12:5] If she gives birth to a girl…sixty-six days: while the longer period of uncleanness following the birth of a girl, compared to that following the birth of a boy, might reflect the relative disparity in social status between men and women in ancient Israel (and attested in other cultures), this is by no means certain. There is no simple correlation in the Bible between the worth of something and the degree of impurity it can occasion.

* [12:68] Certain tolerated impurities (see note on 11:115:33) are strong enough to pollute the sanctuary and require purification offerings, including the parturient (see also14:1032; 15:1315, 2830). Cf. note on 4:3. Mary fulfilled the command of bringing sacrifices after the birth of Jesus (Lk 2:2224).

Leviticus Chapter 11 (Bible Marathon Day 51)

Leviticus Chapter 11 (Bible Marathon Day 51)
{11:1} And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying:
{11:2} Say to the sons of Israel: These are the animals that you ought to eat out of all the living things of the earth.
{11:3} All that has a divided hoof, and that chews over again, among the cattle, you shall eat.
{11:4} But whatever certainly chews over again, but has a hoof that is not divided, such as the camel and others, these you shall not eat, and you shall consider them to be among what is unclean.
{11:5} The rock rabbit which chews over again, and whose hoof is not divided, is unclean,
{11:6} and so also is the hare, for it too chews over again, yet its hoof is not divided,
{11:7} and also the swine, which, though its hoof is divided, does not chew over again.
{11:8} The flesh of these you shall not eat, nor shall you touch their carcasses, because they are unclean to you.
{11:9} These are the things that breed in the waters, and which it is lawful to eat. All that has little fins and scales, as much in the sea, as in the rivers and ponds, you shall eat.
{11:10} But whatever does not have fins and scales, of those things that live and move in the waters, shall be abominable to you,
{11:11} and detestable; their flesh you shall not eat, and their carcasses you shall avoid.
{11:12} All that does not have fins and scales in the waters shall be polluted.
{11:13} These are those things among the birds which you must not eat, and which are to be avoided by you: the eagle, and the griffin, and the osprey,
{11:14} and the kite, as well as the vulture, according to their kind,
{11:15} and all that is of the raven kind, according to their likeness,
{11:16} the ostrich, and the owl, and the gull, and the hawk, according to its kind,
{11:17} the owl, and the sea bird, and the ibis,
{11:18} and the swan, and the pelican, and the marsh hen,
{11:19} the heron, and the plover according to its kind, the crested hoopoe, and also the bat.
{11:20} Of all that flies, whatever steps upon four feet shall be abominable to you.
{11:21} But whatever certainly walks upon four feet, and also has longer legs behind, with which it hops upon the earth,
{11:22} you shall eat, such as the beetle in its kind, and the cricket, and grasshopper, and the locust, each one according to its kind.
{11:23} But among flying things, whatever has only four feet shall be detestable to you.
{11:24} And whoever will have touched their carcasses shall be defiled, and he shall be unclean until evening.
{11:25} And if it will be necessary to carry any of these dead things, he shall wash his clothes, and he shall be unclean until the sun sets.
{11:26} Every animal that certainly has a hoof, but which is not divided, nor does it chew over again, shall be unclean. And whoever will have touched it shall be contaminated.
{11:27} Whatever walks upon its hands, out of all the animals that advance on all fours, shall be unclean. Whoever will have touched their carcasses shall be polluted until evening.
{11:28} And whoever will have carried this kind of carcass shall wash his clothes, and he shall be unclean until evening. For all these are unclean to you.
{11:29} Likewise, these shall be considered among the polluted things, out of all that moves upon the earth: the weasel, and the mouse, and the crocodile, each one according to its kind,
{11:30} the shrew, and the chameleon, and the gecko, and the lizard, and the mole.
{11:31} All these are unclean. Whoever will have touched their carcasses shall be unclean until evening.
{11:32} And anything upon which something from their carcasses will have fallen shall be defiled, whether it is a vessel of wood, or a garment, or skins, or haircloths, or anything by which work is done. These shall be dipped in water and shall be defiled until evening, but then afterwards these shall be clean.
{11:33} But an earthen vessel, into which something from these will fall, shall be defiled; and therefore it is to be broken.
{11:34} Any of the foods that you eat, if water from such a vessel will have been poured upon it, it shall be unclean. And every liquid which one may drink from such a vessel shall be unclean.
{11:35} And if anything from among these kinds of dead things has fallen upon it, it shall be unclean, whether it be an oven, or a pot with feet, these shall be unclean and shall be destroyed.
{11:36} Yet truly, fountains and cisterns, and all reservoirs of water shall be clean. Whoever will have touched their carcasses shall be defiled.
{11:37} If it falls upon seed grain, it shall not defile it.
{11:38} But if anyone has poured water upon the seed grain, and afterwards it was touched by the carcasses, it shall be immediately defiled.
{11:39} If any animals will have died, from which it is lawful for you to eat, whoever will have touched its carcass shall be unclean until evening.
{11:40} And whoever will have eaten or carried anything of these shall wash his clothes, and he shall be unclean until evening.
{11:41} All that creeps across the earth shall be abominable, neither shall it be taken up as food.
{11:42} Whatever advances by four feet upon the chest, or that has many feet, or that drags across the soil, you shall not eat, because it is abominable.
{11:43} Do not be willing to contaminate your souls, nor shall you touch any of these, lest you become unclean.
{11:44} For I am the Lord your God. Be holy, for I am Holy. Do not pollute your souls with any creeping thing, which moves across the land.
{11:45} For I am the Lord, who led you away from the land of Egypt, so that I would be your God; you shall be holy, for I am Holy.
{11:46} This is the law of animals and flying things, and of every living soul that moves in the waters or creeps upon the land,
{11:47} so that you may know the difference between clean and unclean, and so that you may know what you ought to eat, and what you ought to refuse.
* [11:1–15:33] Priestly legislation manifests two types of impurity or uncleanness: tolerated and prohibited. Prohibited impurity arises from various sins (e.g., 4:1–5; 5:2–3; 18:6–23; 20:2–5; Nm 5:13–14; 6:6–7). Tolerated impurity has three main sources: certain dead bodies (animal and human; cf. Lv 11 and Nm 19), various regular and abnormal genital discharges (Lv 12; 15), and diseases (specifically “scaly infection,” chaps. 13–14). An additional tolerated impurity is that generated by the cult in order to rectify the effect of these impurities or sins (cf. chap. 4; 16:26, 28).

* [11:1–47] Apart from the introduction and conclusion (vv. 1–2a, 46–47), this chapter has three sections: (1) prohibitions against eating certain land, water, and air animals (vv. 2b–23); (2) consequences of contact with various animals (vv. 24–41); (3) a prohibition against eating small land animals, which is motivated by the requirement that Israel be holy as God is holy (vv. 41–45). These animals are impure only when dead. Cf. Dt 14:3–21.

* [11:5–6] According to modern zoology, the rock hyrax (hyrax Syriacus) is classified as an ungulate, and the hare as a rodent; neither is a ruminant. They appear to chew their food as the true ruminants do, and it is upon this appearance that the classification in the text is based.

* [11:13–23, 30] Birds: the term is broader, including all animals that fly (including bats, v. 19, and flying insects, vv. 20–23). The identification of the various Hebrew names for these birds and reptiles is in many cases uncertain.

* [11:39–40] These animals create uncleanness, but are not prohibited as food (cf. 17:15–16). Priests who have a higher degree of holiness than other Israelites may not eat these animals (22:8; cf. Ez 44:31). Cf. Ex 22:30; Dt 14:21.

* [11:44–45] Keep yourselves holy…you shall be holy: a similar idea is expressed in 20:25–26. There, distinguishing between the animals is compared to God’s distinguishing between the peoples and choosing Israel.

Leviticus Chapter 10 (Bible Marathon Day 50)

Leviticus Chapter 10
Nadab and Abiu for offering strange fire, are burnt by fire. Priests are forbidden to drink wine, when they enter into the tabernacle. The law of eating the holy things.
10:1. Nadab and Abiu, the sons of Aaron, taking their censers, put fire therein, and incense on it, offering before the Lord strange fire: which was not commanded them.
10:2. Fire coming out from the Lord destroyed them: and they died before the Lord.
10:3. Moses said to Aaron: This is what the Lord has spoken. I will be sanctified in them that approach to me: and I will be glorified in the sight of all the people. When Aaron heard this, he held his peace.
10:4. Moses called Misael and Elisaphan, the sons of Oziel, the uncle of Aaron, and said to them: Go and take away your brethren from before the sanctuary, and carry them without the camp.
10:5. They went forthwith and took them as they lay, vested with linen tunics, and cast them forth, as had been commanded them.
10:6. Moses said to Aaron, and to Eleazar and Ithamar, his sons: Uncover not your heads, and rend not your garments, lest perhaps you die, and indignation come upon all the congregation. Let your brethren, and all the house of Israel, bewail the burning which the Lord has kindled.
10:7. But you shall not go out of the door of the tabernacle: otherwise you shall perish, for the oil of the holy unction is on you. And they did all things according to the precept of Moses.
10:8. The Lord also said to Aaron:
10:9. You shall not drink wine nor any thing that may make drunk, you nor your sons, when you enter into the tabernacle of the testimony, lest you die. Because it is an everlasting precept; through your generations:
10:10. and that you may have knowledge to discern between holy and unholy, between unclean and clean:
10:11. and may teach the children of Israel all my ordinances which the Lord has spoken to them by the hand of Moses.
10:12. Moses spoke to Aaron, and to Eleazar and Ithamar, his sons that were left: Take the sacrifice that is remaining of the oblation of the Lord, and eat it without leaven beside the altar, because it is holy of holies.
10:13. You shall eat it in a holy place: which is given to you and your sons of the oblations of the Lord, as it has been commanded me.
10:14. The breast also that is offered, and the shoulder that is separated, you shall eat in a most clean place, you and your sons, and your daughters with you. For they are set aside for you and your children, of the victims of peace offerings of the children of Israel.
10:15. Because they have elevated before the Lord the shoulder and the breast, and the fat that is burnt on the altar: and they belong to you and to your sons by a perpetual law, as the Lord has commanded.
10:16. While these things were a doing, when Moses sought for the buck goat, that had been offered for sin, he found it burnt. And being angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, the sons of Aaron that were left, he said:
10:17. Why did you not eat in the holy place the sacrifice for sin, which is most holy, and given to you, that you may bear the iniquity of the people, and may pray for them in the sight of the Lord.
10:18. Especially, whereas none of the blood thereof has been carried within the holy places: and you ought to have eaten it in the sanctuary, as was commanded me?
10:19. Aaron answered: This day has been offered the victim for sin, and the holocaust before the Lord: and to me what you see has happened. How could I eat it, or please the Lord in the ceremonies, having a sorrowful heart?
10:20. Which when Moses had heard he was satisfied.

Leviticus Chapter 9 (Bible Marathon Chapter 50)

Leviticus Chapter 9 (Bible Marathon Chapter 50)

Aaron offers sacrifice for himself and the people. Fire comes from the Lord upon the altar.
9:1. When the eighth day was come, Moses called Aaron and his sons, and the ancients of Israel, and said to Aaron:
9:2. Take of the herd a calf for sin, and a ram for a holocaust, both without blemish, and offer them before the Lord.
9:3. To the children of Israel you shall say: Take a he goat for sin, and a calf, and a lamb, both of a year old, and without blemish for a holocaust.
9:4. Also a bullock and a ram for peace offerings. And immolate them before the Lord, offering for the sacrifice of every one of them flour tempered with oil: for to day the Lord will appear to you.
9:5. They brought therefore all things that Moses had commanded before the door of the tabernacle: where when all the multitude stood,
9:6. Moses said: This is the word, which the Lord has commanded. Do it, and His glory will appear to you.
9:7. He said to Aaron: Approach to the altar, and offer sacrifice for your sin. Offer the holocaust, and pray for yourself and for the people: and when you have slain the people’s victim, pray for them, as the Lord has commanded.
9:8. Forthwith Aaron, approaching to the altar, immolated the calf for his sin.
9:9. His sons brought him the blood of it: and he dipped his finger therein, and touched the horns of the altar, and poured the rest at its foot.
9:10. The fat, and the little kidneys, and the caul of the liver, which are for sin, he burnt upon the altar, as the Lord had commanded Moses.
9:11. But its flesh and skins he burnt with fire outside the camp.
9:12. He immolated also the victim of holocaust: and his sons brought him its blood, which he poured round about on the altar.
9:13. The victim being cut into pieces, they brought to him the head and all the members: all which he burnt with fire upon the altar.
9:14. Having first washed *** the feet with water.
9:15. Then offering for the sin of the people, he slew the he goat: and expiating the altar,
9:16. He offered the holocaust.
9:17. Adding in the sacrifice the libations, which are offered withal, and burning them upon the altar, besides the ceremonies of the morning holocaust.
9:18. He immolated also the bullock and the ram, and peace offerings of the people: and his sons brought him the blood, which he poured upon the altar round about.
9:19. The fat also of the bullock, and the rump of the ram, and the two little kidneys with their fat, and the caul of the liver,
9:20. They put upon the breasts. And after the fat was burnt upon the altar,
9:21. Aaron separated their breasts, and the right shoulders, elevating them before the Lord, as Moses had commanded.
9:22. Stretching forth his hands to the people, he blessed them. And so the victims for sin, and the holocausts, and the peace offerings being finished, he came down.
9:23. Moses and Aaron went into the tabernacle of the testimony, and afterwards came forth and blessed the people. And the glory of the Lord appeared to all the multitude.
9:24. Behold, a fire, coming forth from the Lord, devoured the holocaust, and the fat that was upon the altar: which when the multitude saw, they praised the Lord, falling on their faces.

Leviticus Chapter 8 (Bible Marathon Day 49)

Leviticus Chapter 8 (Bible Marathon Day 49)
Moses consecrates Aaron and his sons.
8:1. The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:
8:2. Take Aaron with his sons, their vestments, and the oil of unction: a calf for sin, two rams, a basket with unleavened bread.
8:3. You shall gather together the entire congregation to the door of the tabernacle.
8:4. Moses did as the Lord had commanded. And all the multitude being gathered together before the door of the tabernacle:
8:5. He said: This is the word that the Lord has commanded to be done.
8:6. Immediately, he offered Aaron and his sons. And when he had washed them,
8:7. He vested the high priest with the strait linen garment, girding him with the girdle, and putting on him the violet tunic: and over it he put the ephod.
8:8. Binding it with the girdle, he fitted it to the rational, on which was Doctrine and Truth.
8:9. He put also the mitre upon his head: and upon the mitre over the forehead, he put the plate of gold, consecrated with sanctification, as the Lord had commanded him.
8:10. He took also the oil of unction, with which he anointed the tabernacle, with all the furniture thereof.
8:11. When he had sanctified and sprinkled the altar seven times, he anointed it, and all the vessels thereof: and the laver with its foot, he sanctified with the oil.
8:12. He poured it upon Aaron’s head: and he anointed and consecrated him.
8:13. After he had offered his sons, he vested them with linen tunics, and girded them with girdles: and put mitres on them as the Lord had commanded.
8:14. He offered also the calf for sin: and when Aaron and his sons had put their hands upon its head,
8:15. He immolated it: and took the blood, and dipping his finger in it, he touched the horns of the altar round about. Which being expiated, and sanctified, he poured the rest of the blood at its bottom.
8:16. But the *** caul of the liver, and the two little kidneys, with their fat, he burnt upon the altar.
8:17. The calf with the skin, and the flesh ***, he burnt outside the camp, as the Lord had commanded.
8:18. He offered also a ram for holocaust. And when Aaron and his sons had put their hands upon its head:
8:19. He immolated it, and poured its blood round about the altar.
8:20. Cutting the ram into pieces, the head thereof, and the joints, and the fat he burnt in the fire.
8:21. Having first washed the *** feet, and the whole ram together he burnt upon the altar: because it was a holocaust of most sweet odor to the Lord, as he had commanded him.
8:22. He offered also the second ram, in the consecration of priests: and Aaron, and his sons put their hands upon the head thereof.
8:23. When Moses had immolated it, he took of its blood, and touched the tip of Aaron’s right ear, and the thumb of his right hand, and in like manner also the great toe of his right foot.
8:24. He offered also the sons of Aaron: and when with the blood of the ram that was immolated, he had touched the tip of the right ear of every one of them, and the thumbs of their right hands, and the great toes of their right feet, the rest he poured on the altar round about.
8:25. But the fat, and the rump, *** and the caul of the liver, and the two kidneys with their fat, and with the right shoulder, he separated.
8:26. Taking out of the basket of unleavened bread, which was before the Lord, a loaf without leaven, and a cake tempered with oil and a wafer, he put them upon the fat, and the right shoulder:
8:27. Delivering all to Aaron, and to his sons. Who having lifted them up before the Lord,
8:28. He took them again from their hands, and burnt them upon the altar of holocaust: because it was the oblation of consecration, for a sweet odor of sacrifice to the Lord.
8:29. He took of the ram of consecration, the breast for his portion, elevating it before the Lord, as the Lord had commanded him.
8:30. Taking the ointment, and the blood that was upon the altar, he sprinkled Aaron, and his vestments, and his sons, and their vestments with it.
8:31. When he had sanctified them in their vestments, he commanded them, saying: Boil the flesh before the door of the tabernacle, and there eat it. Eat ye also the loaves of consecration, that are laid in the basket, as the Lord commanded me, saying: Aaron and his sons shall eat them.
8:32. Whatever shall be left of the flesh and the loaves, shall be consumed with fire.
8:33. You shall not go out of the door of the tabernacle for seven days, until the day wherein the time of your consecration shall be expired. For in seven days the consecration is finished:
8:34. As at this present it has been done, that the rite of the sacrifice might be accomplished.
8:35. Day and night shall you remain in the tabernacle observing the watches of the Lord, lest you die. For so it has been commanded me.
8:36. Aaron and his sons did all things which the Lord spoke by the hand of Moses.

Leviticus Chapter 7 (Bible Marathon Day 49)

Leviticus Chapter 7 (Bible Marathon Day 49)

Of sacrifices for trespasses and thanks offerings. No fat nor blood is to be eaten.

7:1. This also is the law of the sacrifice for a trespass: it is most holy.

Trespass. . .Trespasses, for which these offerings were to be made, were lesser offenses than those for which the sin offerings were appointed.

7:2. Therefore where the holocaust is immolated, the victim also for a trespass shall be slain: the blood thereof shall be poured round about the altar.

7:3. They shall offer thereof

7:4. The two little kidneys, and the fat which is by the flanks, and the caul of the liver with the little kidneys.

7:5. The priest shall burn them upon the altar: it is the burnt sacrifice of the Lord for a trespass.

7:6. Every male of the priestly race, shall eat this flesh in a holy place, because it is most holy.

7:7. As the sacrifice for sin is offered, so is also that for a trespass: the same shall be the law of both these sacrifices. It shall belong to the priest that offers it.

7:8. The priest that offers the victim of holocaust, shall have the skin thereof.

7:9. Every sacrifice of flour that is baked in the oven, and whatever is dressed on the gridiron, or in the fryingpan, shall be the priest’s that offers it.

7:10. Whether they be tempered with oil, or dry, all the sons of Aaron shall have one as much as another.

7:11. This is the law of the sacrifice of peace offerings that is offered to the Lord.

7:12. If the oblation be for thanksgiving, they shall offer loaves without leaven tempered with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and fine flour fried, and cakes tempered and mingled with oil.

7:13. Moreover loaves of leavened bread with the sacrifice of thanks, which is offered for peace offerings:

7:14. Of which one shall be offered to the Lord for firstfruits, and shall be the priest’s that shall pour out the blood of the victim.

7:15. The flesh of it shall be eaten the same day: neither shall any of it remain until the morning.

7:16. If any man by vow, or of his own accord offer a sacrifice, it shall in like manner be eaten the same day. And if any of it remain until the morrow, it is lawful to eat it.

7:17. But whatever shall be found on the third day shall be consumed with fire.

7:18. If any man eat of the flesh of the victim of peace offerings on the third day, the oblation shall be of no effect: neither shall it profit the offerer. Yea rather, whatever soul shall defile itself with such meat, shall be guilty of transgression.

7:19. The flesh that has touched any unclean thing, shall not be eaten: but shall be burnt with fire. He that is clean shall eat of it.

7:20. If any one that is defiled shall eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings, which is offered to the Lord, he shall be cut off from his people.

7:21. He that has touched the uncleanness of man, or of beast, or of any thing that can defile, and shall eat of such kind of flesh: shall be cut off from his people.

7:22. The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

7:23. Say to the children of Israel: The fat of a sheep, and of an ox, and of a goat you shall not eat.

7:24. The fat of a carcass that has died of itself, and of a beast that was caught by another beast, you shall have for divers uses.

7:25. If any man eat the fat that should be offered for the burnt sacrifice of the Lord, he shall perish out of his people.

7:26. Moreover you shall not eat the blood of any creature whatever, whether of birds or beasts.

7:27. Every one that eats blood, shall perish from among the people.

7:28. The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

7:29. Speak to the children of Israel, saying: He that offers a victim of peace offerings to the Lord, let him offer therewith a sacrifice also, that is, the libations thereof.

7:30. He shall hold in his hands the fat of the victim, and the breast. And when he has offered and consecrated both to the Lord, he shall deliver them to the priest,

7:31. Who shall burn the fat upon the altar. But the breast shall be Aaron‘s and his sons’.

7:32. The right shoulder also of the victim, of peace offerings shall fall to the priest for firstfruits.

7:33. He among the sons of Aaron, that offers the blood, and the fat: he shall have the right shoulder also for his portion.

7:34. For the breast that is elevated and the shoulder that is separated I have taken of the children of Israel, from off their victims of peace offerings: and have given them to Aaron the priest, and to his sons, by a law for ever, from all the people of Israel.

7:35. This is the anointing of Aaron and his sons, in the ceremonies of the Lord, in the day when Moses offered them, that they might do the office of priesthood,

7:36. The things that the Lord commanded to be given them by the children of Israel, by a perpetual observance in their generations.

7:37. This is the law of holocaust, and of the sacrifice for sin, and for trespass, and for consecration, and the victims of peace offerings:

7:38. Which the Lord appointed to Moses in mount Sinai, when he commanded the children of Israel, that they should offer their oblations to the Lord in the desert of Sinai.